Monday, 28 Jul 2014
Opinion & Analysis
Bizarre Democratization in Nepal Himalaya

The failure of the Constitutional Assembly (CA) I and the developing stories in the Nepalese politics after the Constituent Assembly Election (CAE) II has had greater to do with the Democratic Movement (DM) I, projecting a unique fusion of Monarchial and Democratic forces which has resulted the present Nepalese politics as extensive and intensive workouts primarily of federal structure, governance, judicial mechanism and inclusion of subaltern portions in all forms in the newer constitution. What has been discoursed in the literature is that any country having an authoritarian regime makes a shift to partial democratic practice after the succession of the democratic movement and then, gradually, paves a way to mature democratization. However, the gap is clearly seen in Nepalese soil that there has been constant interplay between authoritarian and partial democratic forces- finally making quantum jump from authoritarian regime to mature democratic practice in the latest political episodes all the way down.
Of them, the Democratic Movement (DM) I is more likely to cite the greater significance in the political history of Nepal which is in a sense has practiced unique partial democratic practice that has got bizarre characteristics, differing from democratic transitional theoretical studies. Given these deficiencies of the concept of liberal democracy, this is to draw a distinction between an ideal or theoretical democracy and Dahl’s confined liberal democracy. The concept of established democratization provided by Dahl’s classification (authoritarianism▶partial democracy▶mature democracy) which later has been reformed as (Authoritarianism▶Low Intensity of Democracy▶High Intensity of Democracy) needs to be viewed individually in the context of Nepal Himalaya.
As an alternative to Dahl’s classification, it is to duly propose a new five-step classification of (i) authoritarianism which possesses anti-democratic characteristics, and even elements of dictatorship; (ii) low intensity democracy as a basic, but fragile liberal democracy, which often reveals an opportunistic authoritarian nature and is a transitional polity; (iii) Authoritarian regime with minimal democracy (this is kind of interplay), which is a comparatively more dangerous and fragile at the same time (iv) High intensity and extensity of democracy, which is stable and developed liberal democracy by contrast to limited liberal democracy but vulnerable at every pace of time; and (v) truly advanced democracy, which is more likely to be only a theoretically discussed democracy. Of them, the four polity concepts help us to differentiate between political resolutions on issues around democratization in Nepal.
The term ‘low intensity democracy’, which is conceptualized by Gills, Rocamora and Wilson (1993), explains well the attributes of the fragile democracy of the politico-economically unstable developing countries. It is close to Dahl’s term, ‘partial democracy’. ‘Truly advanced democracy’ is different from Dahl’s classic liberal democracy, which has a weak point in that as it cannot solve a contradiction within the traditional liberal representative political system which often connotes a tendency to follow only the particular interest of politicians, bureaucrats, capital and specific interest groups rather than the public good of the whole society (Dryzek 1994:179-180).
Even in Northern countries, the so-called standard states of liberal democracy (high intensity democracy), this deficiency is often found as Hirst (1990: Chapter II) argues in his critical description of UK government administrations. Popular discontent with this limitation of representative democracy embodies the idea of an associative, participatory and progressive political system where citizens can intervene to oppose collusion among elite groups, thereby removing the defect of the representative democratic system, which prevents it from sufficiently representing the public interests of the whole society.
When distinguishing the models of political regimes, the question arises of how a political regime evolves from authoritarianism to high intensity and extensity of democracy (theoretically discussed ‘truly advanced democracy’). Rustow provides a theoretical model to explain the processes of democratization across the globe (Crawford 1996:86-88; Potter 1997:14). He further claims that there are 3 stages for accomplishing democracy in a country.
First, at the preparatory stage, a territorial community builds the state with national identity. Countries like Czech and Slovak Federal Republics, and former Yugoslavia, could not deal with democratization until they had resolved their national identity question. Endless political feuds among well-entrenched forces such as different classes, religions, regions, ethnic groups, and ideologies, appear to menace the cohesiveness of the state. These phenomena are common in authoritarian states, and the politico-economically dominant circle oppresses dissident circles.
However, the solid caste of vested groups starts to crack by global democratic-oriented diplomatic and local public pressures exerted on the state at this stage. For example, from 1960s to 1990s, Nepal extremely suffered from despotism of an authoritarian regime which passed off as a pseudo-civilian government. Under this regime, the rights of the poor labor class, certain regions and even the middle class were often oppressed and as a result, collisions of politico-economic interests frequently occurred between vested groups and alienated groups. The regime was characterized by cronyism, corruption, favoritism, intemperance, the pariah enterprise culture of excessive profit chase, fraud, and political turmoil (Oh 1999: Chapter III and IV)
Second, at the decision-making stage, major political groups start to seek a peaceful solution within the democratic system for stopping long-running conflicts. Antagonistic opposing factions are prepared to negotiate their political interests with each other. Some reactionary factions opposing the whole democratic stream are weeded out at this stage. The low intensity democracy appears during this process but it is still unstable. For example, in 1990, a civil revolution in Nepal reestablished its low intensity democracy after the Royal coup had taken over the weak civilian government in 1960s. But vested groups still kept considerable hegemony to control the state and democratic-oriented groups were obliged to compromise the speed of democratization with their political antagonists (Gills et al. 1993:21-28; Oh 1999: Chapter V)
Third, there is a habituation or consolidation stage, when the state finally institutionalizes its peaceful and reasonable democratic culture. The low intensity democracy is gradually transferred into a high intensity democracy and democratic behavior becomes part of the citizen’s everyday life. For example, the Maoist insurgency from 1998 and the People’s Mass Movement (PMM) II in 2005/6 and the Constituent Assembly Election (CAE) I, which saw a pressured power shift from the monarchs to the existing political parties, finally demonstrated that Nepal had completed the stage of low intensity democracy and was moving towards high intensity and extensity of democratic practice.
That fair election, the success of the People’s Mass Movement (PMM) II and the gradual reform of politics, even though the state has hardly made economic growth and development for long. Of course, as Sorensen points out, the phases do not represent a predetermined path that all countries will or must follow. There is no historical law that says that regimes must move from authoritarian to democratic; a more accurate description of the typical pattern in the developing world is an uneasy fluctuation between authoritarianism and frail democracy (Sorensen, 1993:61).
Looking at the process of democratization in the context of Nepal, it makes a greater concern in the analysis of this writing which has resulted to Maoist insurgency, Royal Takeover II and the Democratic Movement (DM) II, which has ultimately had the sudden demise of the Constituent Assembly (CA) I. The greater intensity and extensity from the success of DM II to the Constituent Assembly (CA) II is not other than the by-product of the unique characteristic of the regime after the DM I. The Palace thereby seems to have less vertical power, but absolute horizontal (soft) power through Hindu State and His Majesty the King as the Incarnation of Lord Bishnu in the constitution. The following figure shows how the process of democratization unfolds in Nepal Himalaya:
The process of democratization in Nepal Himalaya Authoritarian Regime Unique Low Intensity Democratic Regime (both fusion of authoritarian regime and partial democratic practice) Authoritarian Regime High Intensity and Extensity Democratic Regime
The first and foremost factor is to analyze the external factor that is growing independence from colonizers and the practice of democracy across the globe after WW II. The Indian Independence has had more to do in Nepalese context as 104 years of Rana regime collapsed along with the success of the Independent Movement (IM) in India. Secondly, the end of Cold War left a message to the globe that the best political regime for the people and their all-round enhancement is only through democratic practice in the country. Secondly, the internal factor that of Palace mind-set of the royal army and the King as the Commander-In-Army Chief as per the provision made in the constitution 1990 could make its position somewhere visible after the DM I and so was it. Thirdly, the provision of Hindu State and King as the incarnation of Lord Bishnu after a rigorous conflict among political parties and the Palace was reestablished which strengthened the role of the Monarch in post-DM I.
Democratization has had its normal course shifting from authoritarianism to low intensity of democracy to high intensity of democracy in countries, especially in the West where socio-economic condition was fertile and the domestic politics was hardly influenced by others. Opposite to, in those countries where society is diverse, language is diverse, geography is diverse, and the perceptions of democracy and its practice by major political parties, the people themselves are weaker and hardly influence from the centre and the region is operated democracy in wrong ways which in fact the ground reality is to be inspected and acted accordingly for the fuller fruition of democracy.
The existence of democracy and democratization in countries without a deep commitment to the rule of law, leadership quality, conflict management skills, perception of the co-existence of others and the international relation would be more often contingent upon coercion, deceit and violence. As has been witnessed from the experiences of then African and Asian countries, political uncertainty and power vacuum has led to the disintegration among political parties and their leaders, finally turning the state a failed one. In the case of Nepal, it has not got a newly drafted constitution, stable government and good record of law. In this respect, the practice of higher intensity of democracy to pack up all the issues raised after the success of the PMM II might demolish multi-party democracy, free and fair elections and freedom of speech and association promised by the interim constitution and who knows could lead to the failed state, if things are not well-managed based on the increasing domestic and international circumstances.
Undertaken the situation of Nepal, the higher intensity of democratic practice and the need to draft the newer constitution, respecting and including all sorts of people in the mainstream politics and development is the greater concern at this moment. Further, governance system and federal structure are to be majorly convincing among the political parties, their leaders and the people at large. However, the time is not like that of what people generally think of and the discourses are made up of. The political parties and their manifestations in the election have intersected each other in which some agree on the federal structure, but not on the base for federal structure. Some others on the other even oppose to the federal structure of the country and the governance system. This serious issue has created greater concern and confrontation among major political parties and their players, which even has fueled to the first round of Constituent Assembly.
Also if the political parties are not likely to get into consensus, there are greater chances of faulty lines among diverse ethnic/tribal/indigenous communities which might push the state to more civil violence and conflict across the country. Further, there could be power imbalance between the central and regional power if it is not well-managed and directed as per the democratic practice. On the other, this could take place where groups control resources and/or identity strengthening institutions but the power distribution between the center and the region might still go under contestation. In the extreme case, the center may threaten to withdraw regional power again to preempt rebellion, which in turn may push a region towards secession, which has happened in Nigeria. The experience has shown that while the country was organized along high intensity lines at independence, those ethnic/indigenous groups such as Ijaw, Tiv, and Ogoni and others that were somewhat regionally dispersed did not get their expected share of the territory and started to rebel.
Backing up these insights into account, the higher intensity and extensity of democracy is to be carefully addressed and thereby well-managed by the stakeholders so as not to lose from its grasp; rather making it a move in the right track so as to address the concerns of all sorts. Socio-economic imbalances and political exclusion are found to increase conflict risk as well, while the loss of autonomy or the fear thereof is a recurring theme in a multitude of conflicts. Further, economic growth and development cannot make its way when a nation has a shift from one regime to the other which gets kind of minimal attention in the increasing political realm. What has been seen in Nepalese context is the failure in uprooting the earlier regime: the interplay of authoritarianism and partial democracy forth and back and quantum jump to higher intensity of democracy would shed all developmental framework and fuel chances of turning the country to a weaker/ failed state sooner or later.

Constitutional Monarchy and Hindu Kingdom- Identified Symbols of Nepal

Nepal has been standing on the verge of disintegration for the last seven years. And neither the law nor decisions is working in Nepal. Due to the eccentric corrupt characters of the party leaders, the parliamentary system has not come to right path as well as the country's development programmed can move. The parties are choosing the ethnic lines to operate themselves to break Nepalese unity. This is tantamount to opting for a suicidal path. Due to the anti-nationalist activities of the Nepali Congress, UML and Maoist leaders, Nepal’s condition has become very critical. Due to the RAW nefarious conspirator roles, anti-India slogans are increasing day by day. So, to maintain the harmonious and cordial relation between Nepal and India and to keep intact Nepal's sovereignty, and Hindu Kingdom, there must be restored the unchangeable point of 1990 constitution.
The concern of the Nepalese people is complete democracy. Hindu Kingdom and the constitutional monarchical democratic system is the identified symbols of Nepal. The Nepalese people don’t want any dictatorial system and foreigners' intervention. Since 2006, we Nepalese people are suffering from Maoist, Congress and Communist party (UML)'s regime who are guided by the RAW, CIA, EU and Christian Mission to fulfil their pretty interest. After 2006, the constitution has stopped working. The foremost cause of the deteriorative situation of the country is the annulment of the constitution of 1990. What were pitfalls of the Constitution of 1990? It was suspended without reason by the hint of Congress (I) Govt. These are the causes of crisis in Nepal. Nepalese democratic exercise faced the black period in between 2005-2014. During the period, the Nepalese people tolerated the worst political practice made by corrupt leaders.
On 22 November, 2005, the 12-point agreement was reached under the direction of Congress (I) Govt. and its Indian intelligence wing RAW against the 1990 constitution to format the new constitution from Constituent Assembly (CA) to terrorize Nepal. Since that day, Nepal’s nationality and democracy have been endangered. The agendas of secularism, republic and federalism embedded in the 12-point understanding are not the agendas of political parties but of RAW, CIA, European nations and Christian missions. Now, Congress (I) the anti-Hindu Sonia Gandhi's regime has ended and the Hindu nationalist party-BJP is in power. And then, BJP should be changed the nefarious design of Congress (I) and RAW which was imposed against Nepal. We Nepalese people respectfully suggest to the Prime Minister of India, the Hon. Narendra Modi and the home minister Rajnath Singh and the External Minister of Govt. of India, Sushma Sworaj need to decide all about the conspirator roles of South Block and RAW proposing to restore the constitutional monarchy and Hindu Kingdom in Nepal before the visiting programmed of Nepal.
Hinduism and its culture and traditions have a long history spanning over a period of thousands and thousands of years and developed over several eras. It is understood that human civilization started to advance since the Vedic age. Hindu religion is the most personally expansive and psychologically empowering religion on earth. It is a path that teaches its followers to be fearless, dedicated, focused, strong, assertive, self-controlled, virtuous, self-reliant, and to strive for excellence in all endeavors. Among all religions of the world, Hindu religion is considered as an ancient religion that is recognized as the foundation of civilization and as the most liberal democratic way of life. Hinduism & Buddhism are the identities & cultural assets of Nepal.
The Lord Pashupathinath, Shoyambhunath, Lumbini, Barahachetra, Gosaikunda, Muktinath, Ridi, Janakidham, Devghat of Nepal, Kailash Mansharobar of Tibet (well accessed for Nepalese and Hindus), and Tirupati, Rameshroram, Jagannath, Badrinath, Amarnath of India are the symbolic shrines of Hinduism & Buddhism. The people of Nepal and India always have cordial relations due to the cultural and religious resemblance. They should know that if instability persists in Nepal, it could be a bastion of terrorism posing a threat to the whole world. When present India (Hindustan) was not in existence, there were more than 25 nations, 250 years ago, the great King Prithvi Narayan Shah expressed –"Nepal is true Hindustan" We have two pious Hindu countries in the world- Himabatkhanda and Bharatkhanda, Kailash-Mansarowar to Hinda-Mahasagar is the original place of Hindus and Hinduism. The Bramhaputra in east, Hindukush in west, north Kailash-Mansarowar and the south Ganga River is the boundary of Himabatkhanda (Nepal) and Ganga to Hinda-Mahasagar is Bharatkhanda (India). Kailash-Mansarowar is the pious land of the lord Shiva. Hindu Kush (Hindu's land) shows that two major kingdoms of Gandhaar & Vaahic Pradesh (Balkh of Bactria) had their borders extending far beyond the Hindu Kush. Legend has it that the kingdom of Gandhaar was established by Taksha, grandson of Bharat of Ayodhya. Gandhaar's borders extended from Takshashila to Tashkent in the present day Uzbekistan. In the later period, Mahabharat relates Gaandhaari as a princess of Gandhaar and her brother, Shakuni as a prince and later as Gandhaar's ruler.
Scholar V.S. Sardesai writes- ''Hindu'' does not come from Sindhu'. The country lying between the Himalayan mountain and Bindu Sarovara (Cape Comorin sea) is known as Hindustan by combination of the first letter 'hi' of 'Himalaya' and the last compound letter 'ndu' of the word 'Bindu.' The historian Yogi Naraharinath also has written- 'Himalaya, Him' indicates 'Hindu.' Hindu religion is the world's most liberal and tolerant religion. Despite being a Hindu country, Nepal is the most liberal and tolerant non-secular country in the world. The philosophy of Hinduism is guided as- "to refrain from all evils, to do what is good and to purify the mind". High thinking & Simple living is the way of Hindus. In Sanskrit, Hindu means 'Hi'= Sun, 'Indu'= moon. Nepalese national flag is also decorated by Sun and Moon. The triangular flag with the Sun and Moon is based on the principles of Hinduism. The national flag of Nepal has its own identity and recognition in the world.
The Nepalese flag is very inclusive and represents to all the castes and tribes insisting the nature. The flag of Nepal is the symbol of unity in diversity. The Maoist wants to change the national flag. That is why; the intention of Maoist is to abolish the identity of Nepalese nationality. To change the national flag is irrational. The Nepalese people believe, Nepal will remain eternal till there is the Sun and Moon. The western renowned philosopher Voltaire, George Bernard Shaw, German scholar Nitse, Megasthaniz and Fai-Han has written many books supporting the Hindu philosophy expressing the evolutionary process of the world's civilization. Hindu philosophy is incomparably greater intellectual work than the Bible?
There is a misconception in some minds that Hindu scriptures sanction the caste system. But being based on Vedas, Hinduism does not permit any caste system, whatsoever. Vedas, the proud possession of mankind, are the foundation of Hinduism. Vedas are all-embracing, and treat the entire humanity with the same respect and dignity. Vedas speak of nobility of entire humanity (Krinvanto Vishvam Maryam), and do not sanction any caste system or birth based caste system. Mantra number 10-13-1 of Rig Veda addresses entire humanity as divine children (Shrunvantu vishve Amrutsya Putraha). Innumerable Mantras of Vedas emphasize one-ness, universal brotherhood, harmony, happiness, affection, unity and commonality of entire humanity. Rig Veda, the Divine Poet declares, "All men are brothers; no one is big, no one is small.
'Hindu tradition is focused on similarities and shared traits rather than differences and exclusions. This makes its identity indefinable yet definite in its features. This means that despite its universalism there are a plethora of beliefs and practices that can be uniquely identified with Hinduism. Without doctrinal rigidity, the Hindu mind has engaged itself with questions that beleaguer the entire humankind rather than issues limited to Hindus. A Hindu identity cannot be sought through conversion or differentiation between believers and non-believers. It has to be acquired through acculturation and assimilation through the recognition of such principles and disciplines that would lead any human being to become a better person and live in harmony with Dharma — the natural path of righteous conduct. Thus Hinduism bows to the potential of every individual to attain enlightenment, to become a messiah unto herself or himself. (An Indian Scholar Mr. Ram Madhav)
Nepalese all around the world and Nepal's well-wishers are anxious about the conspiracy designed by some deviant party leaders against the Monarchy and Hinduism. Nepal will not become a heaven on earth just because monarchy is actually abolished and republican system ushered in. Nepal has already received so much respect and identity for being a Hindu kingdom. The essences of Nepalese nationalism are- Hinduism, constitutional monarchy and Nepali language. If these basic foundations are violated, national unity and sustainable peace cannot be achieved. The conflict between the political parties and the king came up because of the mistakes and blunders of the Nepali Congress and the CPN-UML and the authoritarian thinking of the Maoist. But, where would they stand abolishing Nepal and its identity. The nation and its people will win only if all the political leadership realizes this fact. Hindus by nature are peaceful, law abiding and secular people. However, it is a matter of great regret that Hindus are not being treated with the respect and dignity they deserve.
However at the political level, Indian government has been trying to create nuisance in Nepal's effort to strengthen its nationalism and democracy. Indian leaders must understand that if Nepal due to any reason, is destroyed, India won't get any peace. Forgetting Nepal's background of Hinduism and Buddhism, a democratic country like India, should not work to create anarchy and establish terrorism in Nepal. But why are the United Nations, America and other foreign powers, despite knowing the identity and value of Nepal, are supporting the continuous ruin of this country? Hinduism is the mother of all religions. But we in Nepal are trying to dig up a well though there already is water in our rivers. 'OM' is a symbol of Vedic Knowledge. Hindus, Buddhist's Mantra. It provides a fine example of Symbolism. Symbolism is needed in all fields of human knowledge like science, religion and politics.
As it is known and acknowledged, the Hindu civilization has made an immense contribution towards the advancement of humanity and human civilization across the world. From ancient times Hindus have made the most significant contributions in the fields of astronomy, astrology, mathematics, chemistry, medicine, art, music and last but most important, in the field of spirituality and divine cognition. The nectar of Hindu spiritual doctrines and practices was practically rediscovered by the west in the 20th century and many a harried westerner, worn down by the hectic pace of a technology and money driven life has found solace in the transcendental path of yogic practices and the ancient Vedic spirituality.-(A Saint-Tapan Ghash). Mathematics served as a bridge between understanding material reality and the spiritual conception. The mathematics of the Vedas contrasts the cold, clear, and geometric precision of the West and is cloaked in the poetic language that distinguishes the East. Vedic mathematicians devised sutras for solving mathematical problems with apparent ease.
If we want to know the greatness of Hinduism, we can see The Great Wall of China, "the seventh wonders of the world" has a fourteen feet long Sanskrit incantation engraved on the western gate. Mongolian emperor Kublai Khan had written 'OM Namo! Bhagawati' including others in the 14th century. The Chinese Great Wall has many syllables from 'Mahabharata' written on the doors in Sanskrit language. It is not a common thing that the language was written in Kalipinya letters. NEWSWEEK COLUMNIST Ms Lisa Miller says-'we are all Hindus. The Rig Veda, the most ancient Hindu scripture, says: "Truth is one, but the sages speak of it by many names." A Hindu believes there are many paths to God. The most traditional, conservative Christians have not been taught to think like this. They learn in Sunday school that their religion is true, and others are false. Let us all say "OM." when you chant "OM," it will resonate not only in the room but down through the ages.' May 13, 2010 at > http://www.newsweek.com/id/237910
We in Nepal are suffering from the madness notorious activities of Christians and its brokers to destroy the Hindu identity in this pious land. Senior leader of B.J.P Lalkrishna Advani had said: 'The framework for constitutional monarchy in Nepal should be consolidated because monarchy is the symbol of Nepal's identity and sovereignty. Nepal should have an active and dynamic multi-party democracy'. Present Home minister of the Govt. of India and the BJP leader Rajnath Singh said- 'We used to feel proud that Nepal was the only Hindu kingdom in the world,' Singh said. 'I will be happy when Nepal is a Hindu state again. 'We used to feel proud that Nepal was the only Hindu kingdom in the world. 'I will be happy when Nepal is a Hindu state again. No one is appealing to the Islamic states of Pakistan and Bangladesh to become secular. But it was done in Nepal.' - 2010-3-22, in Nepal. Foreign Relations Deparment Chiej of BJP Vijay Jolly said-' I am a Hindu who follows Hinduism. I am much upset as a decision on such an important topic was taken without taking people's opinion' July 4th 2014 Kathmandu.
In 28 June 2014: All India Hindu Convention passes a resolution to declare Nepal as a Hindu Nation. 'Nepal has since time immemorial been identified as Vaidik Sanatan Hindu Nation in the form of a Devabhumi (Land of Deities), Shivbhumi (Land of Shiv), Tapobhumi (Land of penance), Gyanbhumi (Land of knowledge) and Gorakshabumi (Land of protection of cows) under the rule of Deity Shri Pashupatinath; however, due to the anti-Hindu school of thought of the leftist, Nepal lost the status of the Hindu Nation and was declared a secular Nation. Presently, interim constitution 2063 is in force in Nepal, in which Secular republic status and Democracy have been made irreversible. Consequently, adversities on Dharma such as conversions, cow-slaughter has increased in Nepal. Besides, Nepal is on the verge of a religious-war. Eighty-two percent of the Hindus residing in Nepal are staunch followers of Sanatan Hindu Dharma. Most of them aspire that Nepal once again becomes a Hindu Nation. So that Nepal becomes Hindu Nation once again, this convention passes the resolution that, 1. This Convention supports morally, politically and at all the levels the local Hindus, who are making efforts so that Nepal be declared as a Hindu Nation. 2. Nepal’s Parliament should declare Nepal a Hindu Nation 3. The Secular Government of Bharat should not interfere directly or indirectly to crush the future movement to force the Nepal Government to declare Nepal as a Hindu Nation.' (It was passed on the leadership by Upananda Brahmachari- the Editor of Hindu Existence and friends)
So, in the visit time of the External Minister of Govt of India Hon. Sushma Swaraj should convince and should have to press to the nonsense Nepalese party leader- (Maoist, Congress, UML) the secularists, republicans who had guided by Congress (I) Govt. and its RAW, CIA and EU, to restore the constitutional monarchy and Hindu Kingdom in Nepal for the stability, peace and to keep intact the prestige of Hindus in all over the world.
Actually, the real introduction of Christianity we should have to remember the expression by American former President Jefferson has said- 'The Christian religion subjected many to inhumane torture in course of proselytizing them– many were imprisoned; many thrown into fire, and given mental torture. The Christian religion deceived and tricked half the population of the world to keep them in illusion. Other half were made naïve.' Similarly, South African leader Nelson Mandela has said- 'In Africa, previously the Christians had the bible we possessed the land. Today we have the bible while Christians possess the land.' So, Hinduism is the foundation of human civilization. The Hindu Philosophy preaches that all the people of the world are our friends. Fraternity & honesty always has been propounded by Hindus. However, the Racism and social discriminations are the great hindrances of Hindus. Of course it needs to be corrected. If we respect each other, our problems will be mitigated gradually. Then, Nepal must be restored Hindu Kingdom with constitutional monarchy with respect.
Email:dirgharajprasai@gmail.com

Youth Migration a Boon?


Migration is a huge phenomenon and one of the key issues of global attention today. Although the movement and settlement of people across borders is not a new phenomenon, the accelerated magnitude and extent of current migration is phenomenal. Contemporary migration is taking place, at least, in twofold: internal and external. They can further be divided into temporary migration and permanent migration. Internal migration is the movement of people from one place to another within a country whereas external migration is people’s movement from one country to another either for short-term arrangement (temporary migration) or long term settlement (permanent migration). International migration takes place in many directions: from south to south, between east and west, from south to north and vice versa.
International migration carries the promise of substantially accelerating development, poverty reduction and the emancipation of the people. The reports from World Bank, the International Organization for Migration and Global Commission on International Migration and UN High-Level Dialogue on Migration and Development optimistically concur that international migration is a huge asset for development of the source countries of migration. Even though majority of migration is taking place in neighboring countries, the trend of moving from south to north is in the rise.
People from poor countries migrate to north and other lucrative destinations in the Middle East (Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Malaysia, Israel etc.), as well as South Korea and Japan looking for employment opportunities. Many of them end up doing the lowest rank-of-the-ladder jobs or the so called ‘3Ds”. In return, the remittance flows to developing countries are comparatively larger than foreign investment or overseas aid. The World Bank estimates that there are more than 200 million migrants in the world now, and the money (remittance) migrant workers send home stands over 300 billion dollars per year. The remittance sent by migrant workers directly goes into the hands of family members exactly the same amount bypassing the complex and wasteful bureaucratic system through which international aid is channelized. In many developing countries the percentage of the population working abroad and the percentage of GDP represented by remittances run into double digits. Migration also reduces overpopulation, unemployment, and poverty of the source country. And migrants’ remittance will contribute to the welfare and well-being of the locals because they create a new demands for locally produced commodities and services, which has a positive effect on local employment and income.
This optimistic side does not necessarily and/or automatically lead to development of the source countries. A range of critical issues needs attention here. The potential success of migration depends much on the volume and direction of migration that is the shifts in migration frontiers, the composition of the flows such as the volume of low versus high skilled migration, the degree of feminization of labour migration, the consequences of the rise of migration industries, the degree of circulation and return of migrants and the politicization of migration. Phenomena such as circular migration, brain gain, skill formation, migrant entrepreneurship, social remittances, transnational philanthropy and politics, and the role of migrant returnees and the diaspora clearly stimulate the discourse of development in context.
The context of Nepalese migration is not new by any means but types. Remittances have contributed to alleviation of income poverty by directly increasing household expenditure capacity for consumptions, and providing access to finance. Although it is not empirically proved, migration can contribute to utilizing knowledge, skills and resources of migrant diaspora and returnees. In terms of achieving Millennium Development Goals, a recent study, by ADB, on the factors behind the decline in poverty shows that while high food prices and non-food prices increased poverty by 5.15% and 1.09% respectively, the increase in income primarily driven by remittances decreased poverty by 14.86%, leading to a net decline in poverty by 7.61% annually between 2003 and 2010. It is encouraging but it is also important to investigate how the remittance is being spent and social costs associated with it? Is it making a short-term difference in statistics or supporting the long-term sustainable changes in society? Is the larger portion of remittance used for productive sectors or consumption only? Is it helping to consolidate family fabrics or leading to collapse of family ties? Recent research demonstrated that about 80 per cent of remittance flowing into a household is spent on daily consumption and just 2.4 per cent in capital formation. A micro-level household survey conducted recently in five village district committees of Mahottari district in the Terai plains showed that remittances are mostly spent on mobile phones/laptops and to repay loans, which have interest as high as 36 per cent, taken informally from moneylenders in villages.
No doubt, remittances have been crucial in reducing poverty, empowering women and inequalities by increasing expenditure capacities of poor households, giving more socio-political interactive opportunities to women and widening their consumption baskets, yet it should not be considered as a substitute to formulating and implementing long-term economic growth and job creating investment policy reforms. Among others, agricultural policy reforms are paramount to capitalize sustainability of Nepalese economy. According to the Sixth National Agriculture Census 2011/12, there are 3.831 million farming households in Nepal and the families that were completely dependent on agriculture but due to reducing agricultural productions, they are diversifying their attention to other sectors primarily migration of male-youths. The migration of the male-youths from villages across the country has made ‘feminization of agriculture’ and/or ‘old people’s social-networks’. This trend of migration has not only left the land to be fallow, and non-productive but the development of a ‘no-male-youths-culture’ for social functions or participatory social and political actions. Some other emerging social drawbacks attached to youths’ migration, widely reported by the Nepalese media, are: the rise of divorce, psychological impacts on women, increasing income dependency and family falling apart.
According to Central Bureau of Statistics, the unemployment rate stands at an alarming 46% and currently 1,500 youths leave the country every day in search of foreign employment. The perennial political instability, and high unemployment rate with no promise of future that the youths dream for in the age of globalization, most of the youths have been consistently opting out from Nepal for employment opportunities in Middle East although most of these youths end up doing 3-D jobs at destinations. Another large portion of youth population is leaving country for foreign education and permanent settlement abroad. Due to the lack of appropriate legal mechanism, migration of women has often been a problematic issue on the other hand. However, the concerned authorities have not seemed to be bothered about these issues and extensive youth population drain at the expense socio-politico-economic costs is arguably occurring. In his address during a program marking the International Youth Day, Khila Raj Regmi, Nepal's former interim government’s Chairman said that the government had taken the issue of migration seriously and it would soon come up with various plans to solve the problem. On February 6, 2014 Kantipur Daily reported, “The government has introduced an incentive package for agriculture enterprises and animal husbandry in a bid to restrict the soaring number of youths leaving the country for foreign jobs”. Although the incentive package aspires to reduce the out-migration of youths but as it is, it is cumbersome and little has been (will be) achieved unless clearly articulated efficient, robust and timely policies are transparently introduced to attract the youths to prop up social, political and economic prosperity of the country. All stakeholders including civil society, academics and the media need to highlight the issue and deliberate for potential solutions. Politicians and policy makers need to turn these potential solutions into policies for endogenous development and sustainable prosperity.

The author can be contacted at pandeycl@gmail.com

Faces of Nepalese Prime Ministers, 1990-2014


In Nepal, the constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democratic system can move the country with coordination. In practice, there must be coordinated and balance among the nationality, monarchy and democracy. But, due to the recklessness of the leadership in national devlopment, Nepal is in disarray because the regime has always been in the grip of traitors and corrupt leaders. In the name of democracy, from 1990, the national state treasury was pilfered by the politicians who were in power. After the establishment of an all-party system in 1990, the week when Krishna Prasad Bhattarai became the Prime Minister of the interim rule, 10 Nepal Police personnel were killed in broad daylight. All miscreants, murderers, corrupts and criminals jailed during the Panchayat period were released by taking commission. Rs.150 million was distributed to just about anyone under the pretext of political victims.
During the visit in India by the interim Prime Minister-Krishna Prasad Bhattarai, a statement was signed on 10 June in 1990 that lacked remarks over alleged Indian blockade on Nepal. The view of common money and Common River was introduced unnecessary- a move that broke the backbone of nation’s industrial sector. But, in total, he could format the 2047 constitution supporting by all sectors and participation. The main objective of the 2047 constitution is to strengthen the nationality, monarchy and parliamentary democracy. He wanted to apply the political ideology of BP Koirala in practice. The former PM Krishna Prasad Bhattarai- passed away 2068-BS who was a dedicated personality of constitutional monarchy, parliamentary democracy and Hindu Kingdom. He stood steadfast and never abandoned his principles for the shake of power and privileges until his last breath. He was non-corrupt nationalist. He had a sharp sense of humor that could satire to everybody. When he became Prime minister two times he was with one trunk (old box), one water jar and one umbrella and after his tenure of PM, he returned with the same three things but not valuable armaments and money.
In 1991, Girija Prasad Koirala became the Prime Minister. After becoming the premier, Koirala Congressionized the nation’s administrative management and introduced several, plans and pilfered state coffers. Koirala until 1994, sold 12 organizations and industries contributed by China, taking millions as commission. He drained the nation’s economy through the Boeing, Damija and Lauda scams in the name of suppressing communist- the suppression impelled Maoist revolution. It is a habit of Koirala to support the King when he retains the post and jump in opposition against King after being removed from the post. Koirala who became Prime Minister every now and then through many conspiracies became PM once again after 2005 by treading on the Constitution and riding on Maoist shoulders. We had believed he would not repeat the past mistakes while working. After reaching the state power Koirala declared secularism and republic to perish Nepal’s identity. Traitors never become positive.
Congress leader, Sherbahadur Deuba who became Prime Minister after the Supreme Court forcibly reinstated the abolished parliament in 1995, became a man in no man’s land. After becoming PM, Deuba devised various ideas to retain the power. Deuba declared pensions for parliamentarians; increased allowances by 10 times the number then provided them with Prado and Pajero vehicles. He also led the anti-nationalist Mahakali Treaty. He provided the platform for many corrupts in the cabinet to drain the nation’s money. Yes- India is not a terrorist country, but it gave shelters to the Nepalese Maoists to wage war against Nepalese Govt. and monarchy in particular. Then, Deupa's Govt. tagged the Maoists as the terrorist and put price on the Maoist leaders heads. After 2005 they joined the hands by the mediation of RAW in the name of constituent Assembly for desintrigate the Nepalese unity, nationality. During his third time as PM after King Gyanendra took to power, the PM drained state money. He could not do anything in name of the nation. Sher Bahadur is the political pendulum and corrupt man of congress’ politics. The period when Sher Bahadur reigned as PM is considered an extremely corrupt era.
There are two truths in the world, natural and artificial. Things that humans can manipulate by knowing and understanding are artificial. Those things that lie outside the bounds of humans’ desire can be taken as natural. Corrupt leaders and traitors have taken control over Nepal’s state governance. They do not want to respect the natural structure nor do they embrace artificial ideologies. Due to traitors, the nation is becoming unstable. These traitors have one aim; and that is to fulfill their self-interest. For them, it is, ‘Ends justify the means’. A good man’s goal will be to conclude the process already underway towards another goal. It is, ‘Means justify ends.’ In Nepal, during the Panchayat rule there were no arrangements for an opposition in constitutional framework. An all party system was established in 1990 so as to run the state on policies of both the state parties and the opposition. However, Nepali Congress and UML that successively came to government after the establishment of democracy pillaged the state coffer sending the country to dregs.
An analyst Rabi Bhandari ‘Pratap’ writes on a subject pertaining to the amount of properties added by Sher Bahadur Deuba after he became Prime Minister. He writes, “Sher Bahadur has 269 Ropanis (equivalent to 5,625 square feet) of land in Sainbu, Bhainsepati; in Bhaktapur the leader has 100 Ropanis; 50 Ropanis land equivalent to Rs. 6 billion near Fewa Lake in Pokhara, and his house in Budhanilkantha costs approximately Rs. 500 million. How much money, gold, silver and other materials has he deposited in national and international banks? Rumor has it that the commission he received when purchasing weapons from Belgium were deposited in Singapore bank. He says that his properties were all gained from his wife’s side. However, his wife’s background is that of a not so rich family living in Jawalakhel, who was able to use Shumsher as surname due to the demand of Bobod, son of Juda Shumsher’s concubine. Arju Rana, wife of Deuba, used to ride a black scooter in 1990. We can clearly grasp the economic plight of Arju’s family in the book of ‘Sri Teens’ by Purushottam Shumsher Rana.
After the 2nd mass election 2052 BS, CPN (UML) leader Manmohan Adhikary became the PM of Nepal who was not a corrupt leader but during his reign as PM corruption was made easy. Manmohan who did not sign the Mahakali Treaty supported the Mahakali Treaty. Surya Bahadur Thapa and Lokendra Bahadur Chand who held considerable sway during Panchayat era also drained national coffers to suffice the needs of their men and to quench the need till their seventh-generation. Lokendra Bahadur is incapable in political terms and filth for nationality. Surya Bahadur Thapa is a corrupt leader of conservative factionalism. Surya Bahadur became successful in becoming PM by drawing on various plots. In 2003, after Thapa became PM he expanded the pension camp of Indian soldier board and gave entry to Indian power in more than 25 districts. This allowed Indians to impose as much as programmed in their capability. Surya Bahadur is a traitor.
Tulsi Giri and Kirtinidhi Bista who came to fame as nationalist by becoming PM in Panchayat era became vice chairman of the cabinet formed under the chairmanship of the King after 2004. They were subjected to humiliation after they proved to be incapable. The royal institution was pushed into trouble as wrong people gained the opportunity to hold power. Among the deputy prime ministers Madhav Kumar Nepal (the former PM), Bharat Mohan Adhikary, Bamdev Gautam, Upendra Yadav, Bijaya Gachedar did nothing more than fulfill their self interest and suck at the nation. When late Shailaja Acharya took a stance on a policy she was chased by her maternal uncle -Girija. Since 1990 Kumbahadur Khadka, Gobindaraj Joshi, Pashupati Shamshre, Jayaprakash Gupta, Hridayesh Tripathi, Rajendra Mahato and after 2008 Sujata Koirala, ( Daughter of Girija) the deputy PM and ministers but they earned a fame of ambushing the nation in the net of corruption.
Among the entire Prime Ministers of Nepal, Krishna Prasad Bhattarai and UML leader Manmohan Adhikary are known as persons with untainted image regardless of the 10 point agreement reached with the government on 10 July 1990 by KP Bhattarai and support to Mahakali treaty by Manamohan Adhikari.
The Maoist chairman Prachanda became Prime minister-2008 but he was non-starter and could not do anything except confusions. PM Prachanda's views were not explicit. Girija Prasad destroyed Nepali Congress and the nation. During his visit to India, he kicked the upper Karnali and Arun Third including the commitment of Mahakali treaty and handed them to India. Citizenship certificates were distributed to millions of foreigners but the party remained silent. Maoist boasts about being secular has attacked the culture, tradition and moved in contravention to exiting rules by appointing priests in Pashupatinath Temple. It revoked its earlier decision after witnessing people's revolt and accepted the past mistake. This drama has revealed the dual character of Prachanda.
Due to their notorious activities of Maoists, the non-starter government could not move and Maoist Prachanda resigned without reason. The Maoists intention to establish the one-party rule by money and guns constitutes the essence of power. Now, the Maoists want to destroy the system of the court as well as the norms of national Army to establish a totalitarian Stalinist state and isolate Nepal from the international arena in pursuit of their antiquated ideology.
After the resignation of Maoist chairman Prachanda, and then, imposing from India, UML leader Madhab nepal became the Prime minister. He could not do anything for the benefit of the country. The shameless activities under the 12-point agreement are clear indications of the bias the antinationalist party leaders have towards India. By making a republic, secularism and federalism, their agenda, the congress, UML and other parties are only digging their own graves. Madhav nepal also resigned showing the path of consensus. But, the consensus is becoming only a drama. The resignation of the Prime Minister Madhab Nepal could not give the solution.
After the resignation of Madhab Nepal, other UML leaders Jhalanath became the PM by the support of the Maoist Prachanda. Jhalanath also lost his all credibility when he became the PM of Nepal like a non starter driver. Jhalanath Khanal, who touched on controversy inside his party after supporting the Maoists, became Prime Minister for seven months. He resigned weeping. Within the three major parties – Nepal Congress, UML and Unified CPN (Maoist) – things are getting revealed. Jhalanath was chased, after he became the premier, in support of the Maoists. After Jalanath Khanal, the Maoist 2nd leader Baburam Bhattarai became the PM of Nepal by the interest of RAW. The former chief of Protocol of foreign Ministry Gopal Thapa has expressed- 'Baburam Bhattarai makes no effort to hide his pathological hatred for the western band of democracy. Like his fellow comrades, he is convinced that peace, progress and prosperity in Nepal is possible only when the old set of political, social and cultural values are destroyed completely through their brand of radical communism'.(22 June,2012)
After the Royal Palace Massacre, the Maoist leader Dr. Baburam Bhattarai wrote blaming the King Gyanendra, according to the suggestion of P. Harmij (Nepal-Chief of RAW) that King Gyanendra was responsible for the Palace massacre, 2001 (Kantipur Nepali daily Nepali Bs 2058 Jestha 24. P. Baburam is mentally corrupt who wants to destroy all the identities of Nepal who always has obeyed P.Harmij. Harmij, being both are Catholic. It is notable that after the Royal Massacre, P. Harmij was appointed the Chief of RAW in India. Dr. Baburam Bhattarai showed his action as a most controversial and first Christian Prime ministers of Nepal. Due to his wrong thought regarding Nepalese nationality, Dr. Babauram Bhattarai's position is in confused state. Because, being the product of JNU-Delhi, he has forgotten the Nepalese nationality and the people's aspirations. The fact is that during the insurgency in Nepal the Nepalese Maoists, enjoyed the Indian soil as safe shelter and also received enough funds and underground trainings for its fighters for arms and explosives in the Indian camps. Through the 12-point agreement, India became a decisive factor to remove the institution of monarchy with the help of the Nepali Maoist, which was declared terrorists by India. India played a double game while dealing with terrorism.
On the direction of Indian intelligence, scattered Madhesis leaders who are followers of India were gathered and 4 point agreement was made to be Dr. Bhattarai as a PM of Nepal. As he became prime minister just a day after 4 point agreement he initiated to incorporate 10000 Madeshis in Nepalese army, supported anti-national slogan 'One Madhesh singe province' and displaced national dress of Nepal. He decided to demolish the statue of Father of nation King Tribhuvan insulting him. King Tribhuvan has made great contribution in revolution of 2007 BS. He denied accepting national unity day and the birth occasion of the founder of big Nepal the great King Prithbinarayan Shah. He tried to implement AD instead of Bikram Sambat. He protected murderers, kidnappers and corrupts and incorporated in his cabinet. Actually, the former PM Baburam Bhattarai became active to pull the country in drain just as newly born baby thrown in boiling water by a doctor.
After the expiry of Constituent Assembly at midnight of 14th Jesta 2068, almost one year, the four parties Syndicate and the puppet the CJ Khilraj Regmi are legally debarred from exercising any constitutional right without constitutional mandate. After the Maoist Baburam Bhattarai, the CJ Khilraj Regmi a had appointed as a head of government for 2nd CA election, damaging the norms of judiciary and the democratic norms in a dictatorial style by the hint of RAW and western countries finishing the norms of judiciary. After the 2nd CA election, Nepali Congress leader Susil Koirala became the PM of Nepal. The PM Susil Koirala is one of the incompetent political actors in Nepali Congress who has no sense of Nepalese nationality and political judgment. He is getting fizzle out himself. In his cabinet, many corrupted ministers have exercising in corruptions. Can we expect that the traitors save Nepal?' Crows are never the white for washing.' What can we expect when wrong elements come to power? I am very sorry to write that those who raped the nation capturing the regime, the corrupt PMs, Ministers, administrators, corrupts personal and their brokers who were and are involving to loot the country and to destroy Nepal. These evil elements must be punished confiscating their property, keeping in jail.
An analyst Bec Ordish writes- 'Nepal is not a poor country; it is just poorly governed.' 'Nepali Congress (NC) and CPN (UML) again seem to be fascinated with dog-eat-dog competition for pouncing upon greater chunk in the share of power. Similarly, the UCPN (Maoist) is again using wayward tactics to meet its own political end. The threat to boycott the CA citing "massive vote rigging" can, in no way, be termed as a rational political exercise. Other parties who suffered humiliating defeat in the CA election is also crying foul by backing the Maoists. The parties are also nominating many businessmen as their PR candidates in exchange of the kickback provided to political leaders.' The country spent billions of rupees to conduct the 2nd CA elections, yet, there is no certainty that a constitution will be written within one year or even within four years. Even if the constitution is drafted, whether that will be acceptable to all or the constitution is going to be burnt immediately after its issuance. So, it is uncertainty to format the new constitution.
So, to safeguard the nationality & democracy, the King ought to be re-established, and the parliamentary democracy should be strong. Equally, the political leaders must be patriotic & be true to what they say. The problems of Nepal will only be resolved only when the King and the nationalist people's leaders are together in Nepal. What were pitfalls of the Constitution of 1990? Why was it suspended without reason? What kind of new constitution would we require? Why has India supported the Constituent assembly? This Indian conspiracy is the causes of crisis in Nepal. But, since 14th May 2014, the BJP Narendra Modi won India chasing the nefarious leadership of Congress (I)- Sonia Gandhi regime and the RAW. Due to the notorious conspirator role of Congress (I)-the Catholic Sonia regime has ended forever.
Nepalese people are feeling that the country in the worst situation in Nepalese history. We Nepalese people hope- Govt. of BJP should be realized the nefarious activities of to break Nepal imposing the secularism (Christianity) and republic and its will suggest to restore the Hindu kingdom and constitutional monarchy to maintain the cordial relation between Nepal and India and to keep intact peace in this zone. Monarchy and Hindu Kingdom are co-related in Nepal. The permanent institution- 'monarchy' can put unites the cordial relation between Nepal, India and China. Nepalese king has ever acted or walked on the path which is against Nepal's national interest. The Constitution-1990 has been forcibly abducted by the same vicious circle by using the modes of unilateral and undemocratic process. It would be right medication to Nepal to reinstate the unchangeable constitutional points of the constitution-2047 BS in order to fill-up the democratic and constitutional gap with the presence of monarchy, political parties and nationalist forces including the army, police and court and various organs of the nation.

Email: dirgharajprasai@gmail.com

Oil price slips below $102 a barrel

PABLO GORONDI, Jul 25: The price of oil slipped below $102 a barrel on Friday, falling for a second day after spiking on lower U.S. inventories and tensions in Ukraine and the Middle East.
By early afternoon in Europe, benchmark U.S. crude for September delivery was down 38 cents to $101.69 in electronic trading on the New York Mercantile Exchange. On Thursday, the Nymex contract dropped $1.05 to close at $102.07.
Brent crude, a benchmark for international oils, was up 4 cents to $107.11 in trading on the ICE Futures exchange in London.
Lower-than-expected U.S. crude inventories in a weekly Energy Department report had driven prices up on Wednesday, but expectations of stronger growth in demand were later countered as gasoline supplies were nearly three times larger than predicted.
Oil prices were also under pressure from a downgraded growth forecast from the International Monetary Fund. The IMF now projects global growth of 3.4 percent this year, down from April expectations of 3.7 percent growth, as it sees economic expansion slowing in the United States, Russia and developing countries.
While concerns over the clashes in eastern Ukraine and Israel´s invasion of the Gaza Strip have helped keep oil above $100 a barrel, some experts said there seemed to be no new grounds for another significant increase.
"The numerous sources of geopolitical crisis could have a negative impact on demand," said analysts at Commerzbank in Frankfurt in a note to clients. "What is more, there have so far been no significant supply outages despite all the conflicts, even including the situation in Iraq."
In other energies trading on Nymex: — Wholesale gasoline rose 0.72 cent to $2.8202 a gallon.
— Natural gas lost 4.2 cents to $3.805 per 1,000 cubic feet.
— Heating oil added 1.01 cents to $2.8893 a gallon.

Oil price slips below $102 a barrel

PABLO GORONDI, Jul 25: The price of oil slipped below $102 a barrel on Friday, falling for a second day after spiking on lower U.S. inventories and tensions in Ukraine and the Middle East.
By early afternoon in Europe, benchmark U.S. crude for September delivery was down 38 cents to $101.69 in electronic trading on the New York Mercantile Exchange. On Thursday, the Nymex contract dropped $1.05 to close at $102.07.
Brent crude, a benchmark for international oils, was up 4 cents to $107.11 in trading on the ICE Futures exchange in London.
Lower-than-expected U.S. crude inventories in a weekly Energy Department report had driven prices up on Wednesday, but expectations of stronger growth in demand were later countered as gasoline supplies were nearly three times larger than predicted.
Oil prices were also under pressure from a downgraded growth forecast from the International Monetary Fund. The IMF now projects global growth of 3.4 percent this year, down from April expectations of 3.7 percent growth, as it sees economic expansion slowing in the United States, Russia and developing countries.
While concerns over the clashes in eastern Ukraine and Israel´s invasion of the Gaza Strip have helped keep oil above $100 a barrel, some experts said there seemed to be no new grounds for another significant increase.
"The numerous sources of geopolitical crisis could have a negative impact on demand," said analysts at Commerzbank in Frankfurt in a note to clients. "What is more, there have so far been no significant supply outages despite all the conflicts, even including the situation in Iraq."
In other energies trading on Nymex: — Wholesale gasoline rose 0.72 cent to $2.8202 a gallon.
— Natural gas lost 4.2 cents to $3.805 per 1,000 cubic feet.
— Heating oil added 1.01 cents to $2.8893 a gallon.

Citizen's Investment Trust to provide bonus, cash dividend

KATHMANDU, JULY 16: , Jul 16: The Citizen´s Investment Trust (CIT) is to provide bonus shares and cash dividends from the profit remaining from previous years and the profit from FY 2012/13.
The 19th Annual General Assembly chaired by Ministry of Information and Communications Secretary and CIT Chairman, Suman Prasad Sharma, decided to provide 50 percent bonus shares and 2.63 percent cash dividend from the rest by keeping Rs. 38.6 million from the profit in reserve fund.
Distribution amount will be Rs. 255.9 million including Rs. 193.2 million of the 2012-13 and Rs. 62.6 million of 2011-12..
The general assembly also decided to limit the investment in fixed deposit to 40 percent and to use maximum part to energy and infrastructure.
It has already issued general and rights shares of Rs. 935 million and prepared to work as market developer by establishing subsidiary company to expand capital market.
The Trust established in 1990 has Rs. 46.01 billion in net fund by mid-April.

9 die, over 6,000 fall sick due to hepatitis 'E'

BIRATNAGAR, May 08: As many as nine locals have died and over 6,000 afflicted by hepatitis 'E' in Biratnagar Municipality.
The disease broke out two weeks ago in the town. The cause of the disease is drinking polluted water and stale food, according to doctors.
Of the sick , 80 are in critical condition while 35 are receiving treatment in intensive care unit in different hospitals, it is learnt.
Meanwhile, Minister for Forest and Soil Conservation Mahesh Acharya today met with the patients and inquired about their health.
In the context of the Hepatitis E spread in the town, the Nepal Medical Association Koshi Zonal chapter organized an interaction programme today and urged the government to take immediate measures to address the problem.
Locals have started thronging the health centres, clinics and hospitals for check up these days fearing that they might have contracted the disease, but the Health Ministry has not paid proper attention to this serious problem, said Dr Dipak Sigdel at the Koshi Zonal Hospital.
Hepatitis E was found in 400 of the 500 people who visited the hospital and various nursing homes for undergoing tests in the last two weeks, he said. Dr Sigdel said the government has not provided any financial support for carrying out the tests.
During the discussion Chairman of the Association, Dr. Mahananda Mishra, said at least a member of each family in Biratnagar Sub-metropolis is affected and the situation might become complicated day by day if the Ministry of Health did not respond seriously in time and send special teams of health workers and doctors with necessary medicines, and adopt other preventing measures.
Dr. Kailash Shrestha, Dr. Tanka Barakoti, and Dr. Narayan Kumar, among others, stressed on providing free ICU services to prevent the situation from worsening. They said if the medical services were not provided to the affected patients, it may result in the loss of many lives.
Dr. Kumar claimed the data on the number of hepatitis E patients collected by District Public Health Office, Morang, was not accurate. The office has remained indifferent towards preventing the disease, he added.
Locals said though the drinking water distributed by Nepal Water Supply Corporation was proved to be unsafe and one of the causes behind this is pollution at the water source, the administration failed to take action against the guilty.

Jennifer Lopez to perform at the World Cup ceremony

NEW YORK, Jun 11: Not so fast: J.Lo is performing at the World Cup after all.
Jennifer Lopez said in an interview with The Associated Press that she is flying to Brazil on Tuesday night to perform during the tournament´s opening ceremony on Thursday.
"I´m coming. I leave tonight. We always were going," she said. "I think people get anxious, especially with me and my schedule when I´m like, ´Ah, OK, I can leave this day, that day, I don´t know if we can make it.´"
"People get nervous and I think it was a little bit premature to announce anything," she said. "But we are definitely going."
FIFA officials announced earlier this week that the singer wouldn´t perform the official tune "We Are One (Ole Ola)" alongside Pitbull and Claudia Leitte. But Lopez said they will perform before Brazil takes on Croatia at Thursday´s opening game in Sao Paulo.
Lopez said the World Cup song was orchestrated by Pitbull, who invited her to join on the track.
"I can´t take credit for this. This was one of Pitbull´s call-ins," said Lopez, who has collaborated with the rapper on the hits "On the Floor" and "Dance Again.""He had this record and he´s like, ´I think this record could be great for the World Cup," she recalled. "He´s like, ´Will you do it with me?´ And I go, ´Yeah, of course.´"
Lopez added: "I´m so lucky that he gave me the opportunity."
The 44-year-old singer, who´s from the Bronx, is also busy promoting her new album, "A.K.A.," to be released next week.

Thai beauty queen resigns under social media fire

., Jun 10: Miss Universe Thailand has resigned less than a month into her reign after being harshly criticized on social media over her political comments and looks.
Weluree Ditsayabut, 22, tearfully announced she was giving up the title that would have allowed her to compete in the international Miss Universe pageant.
The actress and former talk show host said Monday she was initially pleased to have won the title, but that the hail of brutal comments on social media blasting her outspoken political views and calling her fat had hurt her family.
Weluree was criticized for comments she posted on Facebook attacking the "Red Shirt" supporters of the former government, whom she accused of opposing Thailand´s monarchy, and calling for the execution of their leaders. "You Red Shirts, you get out of here," she wrote in mid-November, before winning her title. "Thailand´s soil is dirty because of anti-monarchy people like you."
Weluree said that because of the criticism, "the happiness we used to have disappeared totally."
"When I saw my mom not being able to sleep at night, I couldn´t either," she told a news conference. She didn´t specify which remarks she found most hurtful.
Weluree´s comments struck at the heart of Thailand´s long-running political crisis, expressing the attitude of the country´s educated elite and royalists toward the government of then-Prime Minister Yingluck Shinawatra.
Yingluck, who was backed by many in Thailand´s rural north and northeast, was forced to step down last month, and the military soon afterward staged a coup against the elected civilian government.
Thai society has been sharply polarized since 2006, when Yingluck´s brother, then-Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra, was ousted in a coup and subsequently fled into exile to avoid a corruption conviction. Since then until the recent coup, Thaksin´s opponents and the Red Shirts staged competing protests in an ongoing battle for political power.

Singer Chris Brown released from jail

LOS ANGELES, Jun 02: Singer Chris Brown was released early Monday from a Los Angeles County jail, authorities said.
Los Angeles Sheriff´s deputy Tony Moore told The Associated Press that Brown was released at 12:01 a.m. Monday, but he didn´t have any more details.
Brown had been in custody since mid-March, when he was arrested after being expelled from a court-ordered rehab sentence for violating its rules.
And a judge last month ordered the R&B singer to remain in jail after he admitted he violated his probation by getting into an altercation outside a hotel in Washington, D.C., last year.
In his May 9 decision, Superior Court Judge James R. Brandlin sentenced the singer to serve an additional 131 days in jail, but he had been expected to get out much sooner.
Brandlin had sentenced Brown to serve a year in county jail but gave him credit for nearly eight months. The credits include time that the singer has spent in rehab and jail, as well as credits for good behavior while behind bars.
Officials said at the time that Brown´s time in jail could be cut down even more drastically once sheriff´s officials start tallying his sentence and determine whether he´s eligible for early release.
The Grammy-winning singer was on probation after he attacked pop singer Rihanna, his then-girlfriend, hours before the 2009 Grammy Awards. In October, while on probation, Brown was accused of attacking a man outside a hotel in the nation´s capital in October. He was charged with misdemeanor assault.
During his May 9 court appearance, Brown admitted he committed a crime in that case and waived his rights to an evidentiary hearing in which prosecutors would have to prove that Brown violated his probation.
Brandlin had said Brown will have to complete the remainder of his 1,000 hours of community labor once he is released from jail. As of early February, Brown had 800 hours of community labor remaining.
The judge said he took into account that Brown was relatively young when he attacked Rihanna, and that he had a previously undiagnosed mental illness before the case began.
Brandlin ordered Brown into rehab in November and the singer was receiving treatment for anger management, substance abuse and issues related to bipolar disorder before he was dismissed in March.

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Photo By: nepaliactress.com
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National Headlines
Talks with political parties outside CA underway in Ilam
ILAM, Jul 27: The Preliminary Dialogue Sub-committee under the CA Constitutional Political Dialogue and Consensus Committee has started talks with the political parties outside the CA in Ilam on Sunday.
The Sub-committee team coordinated by Ananda Prasad Dhungana started the talks at the Tea Garden Cottage here since 10:00 am with the eight parties including the Federal Democratic National Forum, Sanghiya Limbuwan State Council (Sanjuhang Palungwa group), Kirant Janabadi Workers' Party (Ananta group), Kirant Janabadi Workers' Party (Suman Bantawa group), and Joint Ethnic Freedom Forum (Devraj Lama group).
The Sub-committee started the talks with the political parties who took part in the November CA elections but failed to win any representation with the view of ensuring their participation in the constitution writing process and minimize the possible gap that could be seen after the constitution writing.
According to Ravin Koirala, mediator of the talks, "The government team for talks includes two Joint Secretaries at the Ministry of Home, and Peace, eight lawmakers, and coordinator Dhungana.
Meanwhile, Sanghiya Democratic National Forum issued a press statement and demanded that all its cadres imprisoned at the District Jail, Taplejung be released and all the 'false' cases filed against the Forum's cadres withdrawn. The Forum also demanded for a Limbuwan Autonomous State.
Media persons have been stopped from entering the venue of the talks. The talks would be held for two days, said RK Khambhu, another mediator of the dialogue and lawmaker of the Khambuwan National Forum.
Indian external affairs minister Sushma arrives in Kathmandu
KATHMANDU, NEPAL, Jul 25: Indian external affairs minister Sushma Swaraj has arrived Kathmandu on a 3-day official Nepal visit on Friday evening.
Minister for Foreign Affair Mahendra Bahadur Pandey, Indian ambassador to Nepal Ranajit Rae and others had reached at Tribhuwan International airport to welcome Swaraj.
Incumbent government of India has given priority on Nepal-India relation, she said while commenting to the media persons.
Swaraj is going to co-chair a meeting of the Joint Commission which is scheduled for Saturday.
Her visit to Nepal is taken importantly as her visit to Nepal scheduled before the visit of Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi.
Indian external affair minister Swaraj arriving Kathmandu on Friday
KATHMANDU, NEPAL, Jul 24: Minister of External Affairs of neighboring India, Sushma Swaraj is arriving in Kathmandu for a three-day official visit to Nepal on Friday afternoon.
Swaraj is arriving here heading the Indian delegation in the Nepal-India Joint Commission Meeting scheduled for on Saturday. Foreign Affairs minister Mahendra Bahadur Pandey had extended friendly invitation to his Indian counterpart.
The meeting of the commission is being organized prior to the meeting of Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi's Nepal visit. The main objective of the commission formed at the Foreign Ministers' level is considered as the highest mechanism to overlook the bilateral relations between the two countries.
Mahabir Pun receives Jonathan B. Postel Service Award
MYAGDI, Jul 24: Magsaysay prize winner Manabir Pun has been honored with a coveted award from Internet Society. The Internet Society recognized Pun’s role in bringing Internet to Nepal by increasing digital literacy and education access for the rural people.
The Society on Wednesday announced that its prestigious Jonathan B. Postel Service Award was presented to Mahabir Pun for his key role in bringing Internet to rural Nepal with the founding of the Nepal Wireless Networking Project.
Pun was selected by an international award committee, comprising former Jonathan B. Postel award winners, which placed particular emphasis on candidates who have supported and enabled others in addition to their own specific actions.
“Mahabir Pun has made tremendous contribution to Nepal, with profound implications for the people of that region now and in the future,” said Kathy Brown, President and Chief Executive Officer of the Internet Society.
“He faced unfathomable challenges, and this award is a testament to his dedication, fortitude and courage in helping to connect his country to the world.”
The Postel Award was established by the Internet Society to honor individuals or organizations that, like Jon Postel, have made outstanding contributions in service to the data communications community. The award is focused on sustained and substantial technical contributions, service to the community, and leadership.
According to the Internet Society, Pun was presented the award, including a 20,000 US dollars honorarium and a crystal engraved globe, during the 90th meeting of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) held in Toronto, Canada, July 20– 25.
Establishing Nepal Wireless Network Project in 2002, Pun started wireless internet network at Nagni village of Myagdi district.
Over 175 villages of 15 districts of the country have been connected to wireless internet network with technical support from Pun.
Pun, who completed his master´s level from Nebraska University in USA, is also active in the field of environment conservation besides tourism development along with the wireless internet network expansion in the country.
Kathmandu Metropolis income up by 57 pc
KATHMANDU, Jul 24: The Kathmandu Metropolis has made an income of Rs. 2.30 billion in the last fiscal year 2070-71 BS.
The income is 57 percent more as compared to that of the previous FY 2069-70 BS. It had made Rs. 1.43 billion income in that year.
The income was from internal and external sources and internal constitutes land revenue, real estate, house rent, vehicle and advertisement taxes and external are amounts provided by Nepal Government and various donor agencies.
Revenue Division Officer of Metropolis Dhruba Kafle said new tax payers were added and old were encouraged to pay taxes with various plans and others failing to pay will be taken action. The 24th Town Council meeting of the metropolis has provided installment services to tax payers paying more than Rs. 100,000 annually.



Oil price slips below $102 a barrel

PABLO GORONDI, Jul 25: The price of oil slipped below $102 a barrel on Friday, falling for a second day after spiking on lower U.S. inventories and tensions in Ukraine and the Middle East.
By early afternoon in Europe, benchmark U.S. crude for September delivery was down 38 cents to $101.69 in electronic trading on the New York Mercantile Exchange. On Thursday, the Nymex contract dropped $1.05 to close at $102.07.
Brent crude, a benchmark for international oils, was up 4 cents to $107.11 in trading on the ICE Futures exchange in London.
Lower-than-expected U.S. crude inventories in a weekly Energy Department report had driven prices up on Wednesday, but expectations of stronger growth in demand were later countered as gasoline supplies were nearly three times larger than predicted.
Oil prices were also under pressure from a downgraded growth forecast from the International Monetary Fund. The IMF now projects global growth of 3.4 percent this year, down from April expectations of 3.7 percent growth, as it sees economic expansion slowing in the United States, Russia and developing countries.
While concerns over the clashes in eastern Ukraine and Israel´s invasion of the Gaza Strip have helped keep oil above $100 a barrel, some experts said there seemed to be no new grounds for another significant increase.
"The numerous sources of geopolitical crisis could have a negative impact on demand," said analysts at Commerzbank in Frankfurt in a note to clients. "What is more, there have so far been no significant supply outages despite all the conflicts, even including the situation in Iraq."
In other energies trading on Nymex: — Wholesale gasoline rose 0.72 cent to $2.8202 a gallon.
— Natural gas lost 4.2 cents to $3.805 per 1,000 cubic feet.
— Heating oil added 1.01 cents to $2.8893 a gallon.

Oil price slips below $102 a barrel

PABLO GORONDI, Jul 25: The price of oil slipped below $102 a barrel on Friday, falling for a second day after spiking on lower U.S. inventories and tensions in Ukraine and the Middle East.
By early afternoon in Europe, benchmark U.S. crude for September delivery was down 38 cents to $101.69 in electronic trading on the New York Mercantile Exchange. On Thursday, the Nymex contract dropped $1.05 to close at $102.07.
Brent crude, a benchmark for international oils, was up 4 cents to $107.11 in trading on the ICE Futures exchange in London.
Lower-than-expected U.S. crude inventories in a weekly Energy Department report had driven prices up on Wednesday, but expectations of stronger growth in demand were later countered as gasoline supplies were nearly three times larger than predicted.
Oil prices were also under pressure from a downgraded growth forecast from the International Monetary Fund. The IMF now projects global growth of 3.4 percent this year, down from April expectations of 3.7 percent growth, as it sees economic expansion slowing in the United States, Russia and developing countries.
While concerns over the clashes in eastern Ukraine and Israel´s invasion of the Gaza Strip have helped keep oil above $100 a barrel, some experts said there seemed to be no new grounds for another significant increase.
"The numerous sources of geopolitical crisis could have a negative impact on demand," said analysts at Commerzbank in Frankfurt in a note to clients. "What is more, there have so far been no significant supply outages despite all the conflicts, even including the situation in Iraq."
In other energies trading on Nymex: — Wholesale gasoline rose 0.72 cent to $2.8202 a gallon.
— Natural gas lost 4.2 cents to $3.805 per 1,000 cubic feet.
— Heating oil added 1.01 cents to $2.8893 a gallon.

Citizen's Investment Trust to provide bonus, cash dividend

KATHMANDU, JULY 16: , Jul 16: The Citizen´s Investment Trust (CIT) is to provide bonus shares and cash dividends from the profit remaining from previous years and the profit from FY 2012/13.
The 19th Annual General Assembly chaired by Ministry of Information and Communications Secretary and CIT Chairman, Suman Prasad Sharma, decided to provide 50 percent bonus shares and 2.63 percent cash dividend from the rest by keeping Rs. 38.6 million from the profit in reserve fund.
Distribution amount will be Rs. 255.9 million including Rs. 193.2 million of the 2012-13 and Rs. 62.6 million of 2011-12..
The general assembly also decided to limit the investment in fixed deposit to 40 percent and to use maximum part to energy and infrastructure.
It has already issued general and rights shares of Rs. 935 million and prepared to work as market developer by establishing subsidiary company to expand capital market.
The Trust established in 1990 has Rs. 46.01 billion in net fund by mid-April.


Hamas agrees to 24-hour holiday truce in Gaza war

GAZA CITY, GAZA STRIP, Jul 27: Hamas says it has agreed to a 24-hour humanitarian truce in the Gaza war ahead of a major Muslim holiday.
Hamas spokesman Sami Abu Zuhri said the truce would go into effect at 2 p.m. (1100 GMT) Sunday. The three-day Eid al-Fitr holiday, which caps the Muslim fasting month of Ramadan, is expected to begin Monday or Tuesday, depending on the sighting of the new moon. Israel had offered a 24-hour truce late Saturday, but Hamas rejected it, firing more rockets on Israel. In response, Israel´s military resumed operations in Gaza.
Lt. Col. Peter Lerner, an Israeli army spokesman, did not say if Israel would hold its fire during the time requested by Hamas, but said troops would continue demolishing Hamas military tunnels.

Black box found at Air Algerie wreckage site

PARIS, Jul 25: French soldiers secured a black box from the Air Algerie wreckage site in a desolate region of restive northern Mali on Friday, the French president said. Terrorism hasn´t been ruled out as a cause, although officials say the most likely reason for the catastrophe that killed all onboard is bad weather.
At least 116 people were killed in Thursday´s disaster, nearly half of whom were French. President Francois Hollande put the number of victims at 118, a discrepancy that couldn´t be immediately clarified.
One of two black boxes was recovered from the wreckage in the Gossi region of Mali near the border with Burkina Faso, and was taken to the northern city of Gao, where a French contingent is based, Hollande told reporters after an emergency meeting with government ministers.
"There are, alas, no survivors," Hollande said. "I share the pain of families living through this terrible ordeal."
A team of French air accident investigators was being sent to Mali, he said.
Air Algerie and private Spanish airline Swiftair, which was operating Flight 5017, said Thursday there were 116 people onboard.
French television showed images of the crash site scene taken by a soldier from Burkina Faso. The brief footage showed a desolate area with scattered debris that was unrecognizable. There were bits of twisted metal but no identifiable parts such as the fuselage or tail, or victims´ bodies. Scrubby vegetation could be seen scattered in the background.
Burkina soldiers were reportedly the first to reach the site, apparently Thursday evening, and the images were viewed at the Burkina Faso crisis center.
Gen. Gilbert Diendere, a close aide to Burkina Faso President Blaise Compaore and head of the crisis committee set up to investigate the disaster, said of the footage: "People expected to see an airplane sitting somewhere, and unfortunately it was debris scattered over 500 meters (about 550 yards), which made the search of the area very, very difficult."
Burkina Faso Prime Minister Luc Adolphe Tiao reviewed videos of the wreckage site and said identifying the victims will be challenging.
"It will be difficult to reconstitute the bodies of the victims," Tiao said at a news conference. "The human remains are so scattered."
A French Reaper drone based in Niger initially spotted the wreckage, French Transport Minister Frederic Cuvillier told France-Info radio on Friday. Two helicopter teams also flew over the site, noting the wreckage was in a concentrated area. A column of soldiers in about 30 vehicles was sent to the site, he said.
"We sent men, with the agreement of the Mali government, to the site, and they found the wreckage of the plane with the help of the inhabitants of the area," Diendere said.
Many of the passengers were scheduled to head on to Europe after the plane was due to arrive in the Algerian capital from Burkina Faso´s capital, Ouagadougou.
The president has said that France will spare no efforts to uncover why the plane went down — the third major plane disaster around the world within a week. A Malaysia Airlines flight was shot down last week over war-torn eastern Ukraine. The U.S. has blamed it on separatists firing a surface-to-air missile. On Wednesday, a Taiwanese plane crashed during a storm, killing 48 people.
The vast deserts and mountains of northern Mali fell under control of ethnic Tuareg separatists and then al-Qaida-linked Islamic extremists after a military coup in 2012.
French forces intervened in January 2013 to rout Islamist extremists controlling the region. A French soldier was killed earlier this month near the town of Gao, where French troops remain.
The intervention scattered the extremists, but the Tuaregs have pushed back against the authority of the Bamako-based government. Meanwhile, the threat from Islamic militants hasn´t disappeared, and France is giving its troops a new and larger anti-terrorist mission across the region.
"There are hypotheses, notably weather-related, but we don´t rule out anything because we want to know what happened," Hollande said. "What we know is that the debris is concentrated in a limited space, but it is too soon to draw conclusions."
Interior Minister Bernard Cazeneuve said on RTL radio: "Terrorist groups are in the zone. ... We know these groups are hostile to Western interests."
The MD-83 aircraft, owned by Swiftair and leased by Algeria´s flagship carrier, disappeared from radar screens less than an hour after it took off early Thursday from Ouagadougou for Algiers. The plane had requested permission to change course because of bad weather.
The pilots had sent a final message to ask Niger air control to change its route because of heavy rain, Burkina Faso Transport Minister Jean Bertin Ouedraogo said Thursday.
The MD-83 had passed its annual air navigation certificate renewal inspection in January without any problems, Spanish Deputy Prime Minister Soraya Saenz de Santamaria said Friday. The European Aviation Safety Agency also carried out a "ramp inspection" — or unannounced spot check — of the plane in June without incident.
Santamaria also said a ramp inspection was done on the plane in Marseille, France, on July 22 — two days before the plane went down.
Ramp inspections "are limited to on-the-spot assessments and cannot substitute for proper regulatory oversight," the EASA website says. "Ramp inspections serve as pointers, but they cannot guarantee the airworthiness of a particular aircraft."

Son of S.Korea sunken ferry owner detained

SEOUL, SOUTH KOREA, Jul 25: South Korean news agency says the eldest son of the sunken ferry owner has been detained by police after two months on the run.
Yonhap News Agency said Friday that Yoo Dae-gyun was picked up from an office south of Seoul, just three days after his billionaire father was found dead.
Authorities have sought Yoo, a major shareholder in the operator of the ferry that sank in April, along with his 73-year-old father who had founded the original ferry operator.
Prosecutors say the Yoo family´s alleged corruption may have contributed to the April 16 disaster that left more than 300 people dead.


Review Nepal Gallery


Rhododendron forest in Annapurna region, with Dhaulagiri at the background.
Photo Courtesy: trekkingnepalhimalaya.wordpress.com

Mount Everest, the highest pick of the world.
Photo Courtesy: www.mount-everest.net

Pashupatinath Temple
Photo Courtesy: nepaliadventure.wordpress.com

Lumbini is the birth of place of Lord Buddha and has been declared as a World Heritage Site by the UNESCO. Shakyamuni Buddha was born in Lumbin
Photo Courtesy: www.muktinathtour.com
Interview
Speech of Rt Hon Hugo Swire MP, Minister of State at the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, delivered at Tri-Chandra Campus on June 3

Sabailai namaste. Aunubhaekoma dhanyabad. Which I am told means “welcome and thank you for coming”. I would also like to welcome listeners to Capital FM 92.4 in Kathmandu and Radio Sarangi 191.3 in Biratnagar and Pokhara.
Introduction
As British Foreign Office Minister with responsibility for South Asia, I am delighted to be here, on my first ever visit to Nepal. It is a real honour to be asked to speak at the iconic Tri Chandra College. Countless important and influential figures from Nepalese culture, science and politics have preceded you through this hallowed institution.
Indeed, the college is renowned for being at the heart of Nepal’s vibrant student political scene, so it is no surprise that it counts a former Prime Minister and several serving Constituent Assembly members among its eminent alumni – some of whom are here today.
Each of them began as you are – students. And so I am particularly pleased to have the opportunity to talk to you- the next generation of Nepal’s business and political leaders. Your futures, and the fate of your nation, are in your hands.
Everyone I have spoken to has told me that Nepal is a land of exceptional beauty – which I saw for myself earlier at Pokhara with its views of the Annapurna range. That it is a land rich in history and culture. But also one blessed with great potential.
I urge you to seize that potential – as well as fulfilling your own – and the unique opportunities open to you as Nepal moves out of the shadow of conflict towards a lasting constitutional settlement, and lays the foundations for peace, prosperity and political stability. And, as you do so, you will continue to find in Britain the staunchest of allies.
Bicentenary of UK-Nepal relations: the history
It is no coincidence that my visit comes on the cusp of two very significant bicentennial anniversaries in UK-Nepalese relations. Both of these matter immensely to the UK and its people. Taken together, they form the heart of our bilateral ties. The first anniversary will be next year’s bicentenary of recruitment to the Brigade of Gurkhas. There is no finer or more feared unit of soldiers anywhere in the world – or better ambassadors for the values held by the Nepalese people. And this year we commemorate the start of the First World War, a conflict during which three Gurkhas were awarded the Victoria Cross - Britain’s highest award for gallantry in the face of the enemy.
Indeed, their service continues to be admired, valued and respected in equal measure, across the UK, to this day. Their sacrifices are remembered as one of our own – as befits one of the most heavily decorated regiments in the British army. I was therefore pleased to be able to see firsthand the outstanding work of the Gurkha Welfare Scheme – which ensures dignity in old age and a better quality of life for the Gurkhas’, their dependants and their communities.
I say this not just as a former soldier – but also the son-in-law of a Gurkha officer. That certainly gave me an early appreciation for the might of the Gurkhas. It is nerve-wracking enough meeting your girlfriend’s parents for the first time, without knowing that her father has 30 Gurkhas under his command! March 2016 will mark the second important anniversary in our bilateral relations: the bicentenary of the Treaty of Sugauli which saw the first permanent diplomatic mission established in Kathmandu, by Britain of course. And right up to 1951, we were the only foreign country represented here. If that does not count as a special relationship, then I am not sure what does.
The world has changed beyond all recognition since these events 200 years ago. So why should you, the future of Nepal care? Why should they still matter today? And why do we still value them as highly as we do?
Because the difference between what we can do alone and what we are capable of when we work together is immense. Our solutions to the challenges we face, not the problems themselves, should shape our futures and make a difference to the world- whether in security, peace and prosperity, tackling climate change or ensuring that people everywhere have a voice and a vote.
Building a safer future
With peace at home, Nepal is working with the UK to build a safer future for the world. Nepal has the distinction of having moved from being an “importer” of security during the conflict to an “exporter” of security today.
Across Nepal young people know all too well the cost of war, and are working for peace and stability in some of the world’s toughest environments.
Nepal’s contributions to UN Peacekeeping Missions worldwide do your country enormous credit – and Britain knows from experience that Nepalese Army personnel currently wearing blue helmets are regarded as some of the most reliable and effective operators in the field. Without you, the world – and by extension the British people – would be less safe, and less prosperous.
Building growth and prosperity
Once peace is assured, people’s thoughts naturally turn to the universal goal of securing a better life for themselves and their children. The question on everybody’s mind becomes “how can we get our economy growing, create jobs and opportunity for all?”
It’s a question that has been central to meetings throughout my visit. Nepal has a proud recent record in reducing poverty- supported by the international community- led by the UK: Nepal’s largest bilateral aid donor.
But students, like you, the world over, ask the same questions: how will I get a job and make use of the qualifications for which I have worked so hard?
Ultimately no one else can make growth happen for you. The answer has to come from Nepal – and from each of you. Innovate, be creative, take risks, find the gap in the market and when you have a good idea, don’t stop until it becomes a reality.
And it is also your role to hold Government to account and ensure it delivers on its promises to create a thriving and open business environment. And I am pleased to be here at the head of a delegation of British companies looking to do business with Nepal and deepen our bilateral trade and investment links.
Green economy and Climate Change opportunities
One area that is especially interesting for me - and the biggest potential I see personally for Nepal’s future prosperity - is the scope for Nepal to pioneer a truly green economy.
The UK has shown its commitment to greening its own economy, pushing for a 30% reduction in carbon emissions by 2020 and establishing an International Climate Fund of 3.9 billion pounds to help climate vulnerable developing countries like Nepal. We congratulate the Government of Nepal for the leadership it has shown on climate change - keeping climate change on the national agenda, and leading the LDC nations in climate talks.
Everyone I have spoken to talks of the energy crisis here and climate change is already having a real impact. Clearly this needs to be fixed, otherwise economic growth and investment will be held back, and health and livelihoods will be damaged.
But Nepal, a negligible carbon emitter, is in the enviable position of having the potential to supply all its energy needs in sustainable, low carbon ways. We are helping Nepal move in this direction, supporting work in climate adaptation, disaster risk reduction, forestry and hydropower.
By 2015, the UK will have spent 45 million pounds from the International Climate Fund on community forestry activities, and to support remote communities to adapt to climate change through micro-hydro schemes, solar home systems and biomass gas converters.
Hydropower is central to Nepal’s economic growth, and we are working to help Nepal deliver on this potential – tapping the energy of the fast flowing Himalayan rivers will be a major part of the solution, both here and in your wider region.
But I am also struck by the potential for other sources of renewable energy, from solar, water and forest resources. Taken together, Nepal really is a land of incredible potential, and I have met people in my last day here who are already making concrete progress towards turning that potential into reality. Through innovation and hard work entrepreneurs are already building the future right here in Kathmandu – households and businesses are already installing low carbon and resource efficient technologies to cut their bills and improve their lives.
Imagine a future – a not too distant future – in which the flat roofs of the Kathmandu valley generate energy from solar panels, or are used to produce food. A future in which new jobs and opportunities are created in sectors that at the moment are either just emerging or simply do not exist – everything from the design and installation of smart energy grids, to measuring and managing water consumption; designing efficient public transport; to improving logistics that reduce waste and improve productivity.
These may seem distant dreams to someone in living in rural Nepal. But, as the science students here will know, Nepal is in a position to leapfrog old technologies and to build a low carbon and resource efficient economy that will deliver sustained and sustainable growth for both yourselves and future generations. All it needs is vision, energy and a willingness to work together, and in the UK you have a partner with world-class centres of excellence in science and engineering that can help Nepal make effective use of its resources whilst preserving its breathtaking environment.
So it is in these fields – the green economy and managing climate change - that I see scope for increased commercial, personal and academic links between the UK and Nepal. It is at institutions like this one – with talented and enterprising students - where I see those new green energy jobs being created. This is the place where academic research will be translated into practical action and lay the foundations of both the UK and Nepal’s future prosperity.
Which is why I am pleased to announce today a tripling of Chevening Scholarships, to encourage more students from Nepal to study at the UK’s world-leading universities and join the long tradition of educational and academic exchange between our two countries.
The peace process and democracy underpin growth There is a Nepalese proverb that I am sure you know well: “Opportunities come but do not linger.” Today, in all these areas, there are opportunities for Nepal to seize. But to make the most of them, the time has come for its leaders to complete the peace process, agree a new Constitution and hold local elections. Only these can bring the political stability and greater democratic accountability needed to help Nepal unlock its economic potential.
From my discussions with them, the leaders of this incredible country understand that. I assured them, and I assure all of you here now, that the UK will remain committed to helping Nepal realise that vision, in any way we can.
Conclusion
Our countries have been united in a unique friendship for almost two hundred years. And if cooperation between the UK and Nepal can conquer the world’s highest mountain, as happened 61 years ago, there is surely no limit to the heights we can reach. Those famous, oft-quoted words of Sir Ralph Turner from almost 90 years ago, remain as true today as the day they were written: “the bravest of the brave, most generous of the generous, never had country more faithful friends than you.”
By working together to solve the challenges of the present we will lay the foundations of a further 200 years of UK-Nepal friendship. We want to hear and see more of you –your diplomats, soldiers and students. Your voice is respected, and your views welcome. The world faces many new challenges, but brings huge opportunities too. We must seize them together. Because they may not linger.

Sports Updates
Arsenal signing Colombia goalkeeper David Ospina

LONDON, Jul 27: Goalkeeper David Ospina is signing with Arsenal after helping Colombia reach the World Cup quarterfinals.
The 25-year-old Ospina is moving to the Premier League club after making 189 Ligue 1 appearances during six years at French side Nice.
Arsenal manager Arsene Wenger says Ospina has "good experience and a proven record of performing with Nice and Colombia. He will add strength to our squad and we are very pleased that he will be joining us." Ospina will be competing for a place with Wojciech Szczesny after Lukasz Fabianski left Arsenal for Swansea earlier in the summer transfer window.
Financial details of Ospina´s move were not disclosed.

Suarez could make Barcelona debut against Madrid

MADRID, Jul 24: Luis Suarez could make his Barcelona debut against Real Madrid at the Santiago Bernabeu Stadium on Oct. 26.
The Spanish league announced its schedule for the 2014-15 season on Thursday, and the first "clasico" will take place shortly after the end of Suarez´s four-month ban for biting an opponent at the World Cup.
Barcelona will host Real Madrid at the Camp Nou on March 22.
The season opens on Aug. 23 with Barcelona hosting Elche and Real Madrid hosting Cardoba. Defending champion Atletico Madrid will visit Rayo Vallecano.

France defender Jeremy Mathieu signs for Barcelona

MADRID, Jul 23: Barcelona says it has signed France defender Jeremy Mathieu on a four-year contract with an option to extend it for another season.
The club says in a statement on Wednesday that it reached an agreement with Valencia, where Mathieu has played since 2009.
Barcelona says it has paid 20 million euros ($27 million) for the 30-year-old Mathieu, with a buyout clause fixed at 50 million euros.
The 1.90-meter (6-foot-3) Mathieu has seven goals in 176 matches with Valencia, and is prized for his cool assurance while defending high balls in the penalty area.
The defender will be presented to fans at the Camp Nou on Thursday.

Technology & Information
Swiss-made solar plane makes maiden flight

BERLIN, Jun 02: A Swiss-made solar-powered aircraft has made a successful inaugural flight as its makers prepare for what they hope will be the first round-the-world solar flight.
The Solar Impulse 2 team said the aircraft spent 2 hours and 17 minutes in the air above western Switzerland early Monday. They plan several other flights over the coming months.
The Solar Impulse 2 is a bigger and better version of a single-seat prototype that first took flight five years ago. Bertrand Piccard and Andre Borschberg, the project´s founders, say it theoretically can stay airborne indefinitely. The plane soaks up energy from the sun through some 17,200 solar cells that cover its massive wings, which span 72 meters (236 feet).
Piccard and Borschberg hope to fly the aircraft around the world next year.

TU central library developing as e-library

KATHMANDU, May 16: Efforts are on to develop the TU central library, the biggest library in the country, as an e-library according to the wish of readers and changing times.
The library was established in 2016 BS along with the establishment of the Tribhuvan University at Tripureshwar and was shifted to Kirtipur in 2020 BS.
The library had come into operation with the collection of only 200 books but now there are over 400,000 books on different subjects and a large number of national and international research journals, library sources said.
The library has made preparations to developing it into an e-library. For this purpose, the library has started microfilming the old and tattered books, chief librarian Janardan Dhungana said. The library has set up a solar panel capable of generating 12 kilowatts power, as the library was facing power shortage in the past days, he added.
Meanwhile, the library administration has started distributing digital identity cards to its users. The library also has a plan of developing a research centre and has allocated rooms for that purpose, Dhungana further said.

Samsung Selects New Mobile Design Chief

.., May 08: Samsung has replaced its chief of mobile design, following last week's resignation of Chang Dong-hoon.
Lee Min-hyouk, vice president for mobile design, will take the department reigns, Reuters reported.
The 42-year-old in 2010 became Samsung's youngest senior executive, due to his work in designing the Galaxy handset series, which has helped the South Korean company dominate the global smartphone space. Now, as Reuters pointed out, Samsung sells twice as many smartphones as Apple.
But the recent launch of its next-generation Galaxy flagship phone did not receive the same warm welcome as its predecessors. The GS5's all-plastic design—a sticking point for PCMag's reviewers—was slammed for looking cheap, while the handset's lack of hardware innovations did little to excite customers.
Samsung did not immediately respond to PCMag's request for comment.