Tuesday, 02 Sep 2014
Opinion & Analysis
Revitalizing Korean Development Ethics in the Nepalese Context

Amidst the frustrations battered by the Nepalese politics, a number of World Records have been made from individual level manifesting the identity of Nepal across the globe, ranging from general sports to adventurous mountaineering. Greater efforts are still being made from some other personnel and are in pursuit of diversified areas they are capable in. However, the latest collective event of Human-flag of 35907 (Yosansar, 23.08.014) to the Nepalese National Flag at Tundikhel, Kathmandu has held the attention to all human kind in all forms and fields. This event is likely to break up the earlier records in Guinness Books of World Records (GBWR) on one hand to the earlier one which was 28975 in Pakistan. More importantly, this is the manifestation of the greater zeal and enthusiasm, diligence, self-help, cooperation and leadership quality in the Nepalese Youth. Hand in hand, the activation of Korean Development Ethics-diligence, self-reliance and cooperation- along with the Nepalese work ethnics into a Nepalese version can with full of hopes and aspirations be a greater tool for better Nepal; an affluent Nepal.

The South Korean Development Ethics (SKDEs)-diligence, self-reliance and cooperation (which we have for ages) helped make breakthrough in agriculture and technology (Lee (ed.), Saemoul Undong 1981, p 41-8). The colonial rule by Japan from 1910 - 45 and the Korean War from 1950-3 made the country one of the weakest countries in the world in terms of economy and the infrastructures(Ibid, p 7-19). The history says that Nepal once made a share, shipping some tons of rice to the country in 50s/60s. Frustrated they were, the inculcation of the sense of diligence, self-reliance, and cooperation in the leadership of the late president Park Chung-hye, father to the present President of Korea, Park Geun-hye, his successors and Sameoul Undong (The New Village Movement) transformed a country from a recipient to a donor country within a couple of decades in which the massive participation was of school children, women, youth and old as per their capacity.

Saemaul Undong as a revolution made a Big Push to Korea from weaker infrastructures, low capital, and lack of developmental awareness to a greater height. Motivating people in the form of telling successful farmers stories and sense of competition from one village to the other was in the heart of the New Village Movement (NVM) and accordingly the village was categorized as H(igh), M(idle) and L(east) class villages (Lee (eds.) Saemoul Undong: Implementation of Saemaul projects Ch. 6, p109-11) and of them the self-reliant village (High Class Village) were awarded in cash of $2000 as per the deal (Ibid. p 111). This shows that even if Korea lacked capital accumulation, technological superiority and rationality like that of the West, it had abundant labor and homogenous cultural values and more importantly work ethics in particular. The socio-economic development is therefore said to be possible with a sense of strong commitment and will power to which Korea manifested to the world in a very short span of time.

Looking at the situation of Nepal, the present Nepalese politics has created such havoc that Nepal is getting pushed years and years back in terms of economic growth and development in the global context. This has further led the country to a political quicksand from where it is unlikely to rise up and make a fair destination in the path of development and modernization. Unquestionably, the things do not seem to be in favor of the political leaders, and the reason is obviously lack of consensus among them. As a matter of fact Nepal has further suffered from post-colonial/hegemonic strategies and been a disturbed hub for neighbors, I/NGOs, and the donors, and their application of the vested geo-political and commercial interests. Though, Nepal a sovereign country, to which the Nepalese are proud of, has time and again indulged into partly colonial and post-colonial strategic hub to a greater time and again. However, the youth, their activities and their work ethics all the way now clearly show that this is likely to overcome all the external blows and punches if consensus is made at least on mobilization of youth for the development of the country.

A number of dynamics are there where the youth can be made engaged and mobilized as per the need of the time. Looking at the resources of Nepal, the number of various types of birds found in America and Canada are equal in number to the types of birds found in Nepal alone. The types of vegetation found in China are found in Nepal alone and the biggest butterflies in the world are also available in far western districts (Humla and Jumla) of Nepal. Secondly, the second richest country after Brazil in water resources in the world, Nepal holds the high potentiality of producing hydroelectricity for about 83500 MW (There has been newer estimation that the capacity of producing hydro based on current is many times bigger than the existing one which needs an extensive research in the days ahead), out of which 40000 MW is economically feasible. Almost ten rivers are good for rafting, which reflect one of the adventurous rafting destinations in the world and thereby the famous rafters are hired abroad for their amazing rafting skills. And most importantly, the birth place of Gautam Buddha has been the center of attraction in Nepal that has drawn attention to all sorts of people abroad, either from religious, research and touristic point of views.

Thirdly, unity in diversity is the characteristic of Nepalese people for ages. Even if they have got hundreds of castes/sub-castes with various religious backgrounds, tribal/indigenous/ethnic variations along and across, and cultural practice they have been making is to live with helping each other in times of difficulties with a sense of Nepalese at the fore front except some misunderstandings brought with the recent change in political scenario. Religious tolerance is always in the center of the heart that everyone is free to follow any sort of religion-be it Islamic or Christianity or Buddhism or Hinduism. Further, they even can freely visit to any of the Masjids, Churches, Gumbas or Temples, and thereby can be found next to each in the same boundary with no more disputes, rather a sense of understanding to one another. The economy of the country is lagging behind because of poor infrastructures like transportation, health and education and on the other the rise of unemployment has dramatically increased that has made the young human resource (un-skilled, semi-skilled and skilled) brain drain abroad in a huge number every day.

Based on the above facts, Nepal has got ready-to-use natural resources, human capital and cultural values to a greater height which can play a major role in enhancing socio-economic situations in the country, thereby creating an environment for investment and growth to the fullest. The most important thing is stable government and drafting of the newer constitution by the Constituent Assembly (CA) II for socio-economic and political enhancement of the country at the moment. And the second, rich in natural beauty, high probability of generating hydro power and agricultural crops in the south, Nepal can promote tourism, generate hydro power and bring advanced technology for agriculture for its development, opting for diversified economic growth model as Dubai, Qatar, Brazil, Botswana and many more. However, human resource management along with the Nepalese work ethics is the primary concern of the stable government in creating the environment for investment and massive production of goods and services for modern economic growth and development in Nepal Himalaya.

Vis-à-vis to Western and Korean model of socio-economic development, this is to hardly find the developmental elements in Nepalese context except a couple of them. The western basis of development in Nepalese case is all the way too far, whereas Korean work ethics can at least be revitalized in the Nepalese version, making drastic change in developmental ladder, and thereby the role of international aid as capital, technical and vocational assistance in agriculture and tourism respectively can lead to economic prosperity in near future to which the recent Human-flag of 35907 can be regarded as the Green Signal to all the stakeholders. Most importantly, the government is to be alert whether bi/multilateral international is guided by geo-political and commercial interests, and thereby making human resource management, mainly youth in the present context, as that of China and India did in a couple of decades as Sector Wise Approaches (SWAPs) in science and technology, making ‘Top-Down’ approach of economic growth and development along with the exploitation of massive human capital.

Activation of Korean development ethics in the Nepalese version can be a huge tool for the prosperity of Nepal as the stuffs are not supposed to get purchased from there, rather an instrument of mobilizing people in general and thereby developing a sense of doing something different and greater for all round enhancement of the country. Nepalese do have all these work ethics and what they need is to revitalize to a fuller extent, leading it to a mainstream economic growth and technological breakthrough in the country. All what Nepalese Youth have been longing for is no more post-colonial hegemonic hub, rather a political stability with a strong commitment in all the stakeholders for economic prosperity and infrastructural enhancement in the country through which the trace, Nepal-in-the-move of development, can be shared across the globe. The recent episode of human-flag to the Nepalese National Flag is more likely to be an epitome of the Nepalese version of work ethics in the Nepalese soil and its success story is the projection of the ethics for mainstream economic growth and development in Nepal Himalaya.

The author can be reached at bojindratu@gmail.com .

PM Netanyahu: Show Me the Science!

Remember Show me the money, from the film Jerry Maguire? We ask Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu: "Show me the Science!" He asserts that bombardment of Gaza will continue.... We are determined to continue the campaign with all means and as is needed. We will not stop until we guarantee full security and quiet for the residents of the south and all citizens of Israel.

Can PM Netanyahu cite any scientific research published in reputable peer-reviewed journals showing that bombardment will create full security and quiet?

Is bombing going to create lasting peace? There is no statistically-validated guarantee that this non-scientific strategy will work. It certainly has not in the past. Why should it now? Albert Einstein is famously quoted as saying,- Insanity is doing the same thing over and over again and expecting different results. History shows that using violence to quell violence ultimately just ratchets up the spiral of violence.

PM Benjamin Netanyahu should be commended for his lofty goals of full security and quiet. They are statistically viable, if he supports his words with a proven, advanced military technology for Israel's military arsenals. Lasting peace and prosperity are a consequence of the scientifically-validated approach of Invincible Defense Technology (IDT). Extensive in-field military experience, coupled with peer-reviewed research shows that IDT can effectively, efficiently, and quickly end the current turmoil, and eliminate the rising spiral of violence. If the defense forces of Israel quickly deploy this statistically-verified approach it will not be necessary to base Israeli defense operations on guesswork or to risk the lives of non-combatant citizens on either side of the border.

This IDT approach to reducing stress and violence is already part of the training of America s future commanders at Norwich University, and has been field-tested by other militaries. It is validated by 23 peer-reviewed studies carried out in both developed and developing nations. They include the Middle East, Africa, Southeast Asia, and Latin America. Independent scientists and scholars endorse it, based on 25 years of research.

IDT Reduces Societal Stress

A specially trained military unit, an IDT Prevention Wing of the Military uses IDT to reduce stress in the national collective consciousness. IDT could also be introduced into other large groups such as the police forces, militias or the National Guard. As the cross-border stress and frustration ease, the combatants are more capable of finding orderly and constructive solutions the issues that have separated them for generations.

Experience with IDT in other war-torn areas of the globe has demonstrated increased economic incentive and growth of prosperity. Entrepreneurship and individual creativity increase. With increased civic calm, people's aspirations are raised and a more productive and balanced society emerges. Such a society abhors violence as a means for change or as an expression of discontent. With this the ground for terrorism is eliminated. What is more fascinating is that this change takes place within a few days or weeks after IDT is introduced. The changes are measurable from such statistics as crime rates, accidents, hospital admissions, infant mortality, etc. The changes are measurable from such statistics as crime rates, accidents, hospital admissions, infant mortality, etc.

The IDT soldier's daily routine includes the practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique and its advanced TM-Sidhi program. As a societal coherence-creating military unit, soldiers practice these techniques together in a group twice a day, seven days a week, preferably in a secure location near the targeted population. Their presence need not be disclosed to achieve the effect of violence reduction and conflict resolution.

Such coherence-creating groups have achieved positive benefits to society, shown experientially, in just 48 hours. Modern statistical methods demonstrate a consistent causal influence of the IDT group on reducing the conflict and preclude chance or coincidence. The IDT approach has been used during wartime, resulting in reduction of fighting, reduced war deaths and casualties, and in speeding the progress toward resolving the conflict through peaceful means.

An Israeli civilian IDT group decreased the intensity of war in Lebanon in 1983 in a dramatic way in 48 hours, to name only one of 50 successful demonstrations. (See a summary of the Israel study published in the Journal of Conflict Resolution and summaries of follow-up studies in the Journal of Social Behavior and Personality and the Journal of scientific exploration).
Documented Transformation in Mozambique
The Mozambique military carefully analyzed the IDT research and decided to try it. As predicted, violence disappeared by 1993 and Mozambique became more self-sufficient. Economic growth reached 19%. Once the world s poorest country in 1992, it had moved up to be the world's fastest-growing economy by 2000. Former Mozambique President Joaquim Alberto Chissano, who learned Transcendental Meditation himself, introduced it to his cabinet and then the armed forces. 19 years of civil war and drought ended and President Chissano is the first to give credit to IDT for this effect.

Mozambique continues to be a shining star for Africa and a model for development. President Chissano was awarded the inaugural Ibrahim Prize in recognition of the unprecedented positivity that unfolded throughout all Mozambique under his unique and wise guidance.

CONCLUSION

Real and lasting peace and prosperity for both sides can be assured, not by guesswork bombardment and rocket retaliation, but by a scientifically-verified means to end the decades-old cycle of violence. When the Israeli military adopts IDT it will become even more powerful and respected worldwide because this will be a demonstration of a peace technology the whole world can apply, for the betterment of all humanity.

It is important to note that the IDT defense technology supersedes all other known defense technologies (which are based on electronic, chemical, and/or nuclear forces).

IDT creates genuine and lasting reconciliation and friendship where there was once only hatred and conflict. The military that deploys this powerful human-resource-based technology disallows negative trends and prevents enemies from arising. No enemies mean full security and a normal, productive life for Israel and her neighbors.

If Israeli PM Benjamin Netanyahu arranges for his defense forces to establish Prevention Wings of the Military, they will ease the current high tensions, reverse centuries of mistrust and hatred and permanently prevent future unrest.

Extensive scientific research objectively says, Yes, the approach works. This is a military "campaign" that should be championed with all means. It is desperately needed. There is truly no other solution.

Now is the best time to act, before the storm clouds of Middle East tensions explode.

About the author:

Dr. David Leffler is the author of A New Role for the Military: Preventing Enemies from Arising - Reviving an Ancient Approach to Peace. He was a member of the US Air Force for nearly nine years. Dr. Leffler served as an Associate of the Proteus Management Group at the Center for Strategic Leadership, US Army War College. He now serves as the Executive Director at the Center for Advanced Military Science (CAMS) in Fairfield, Iowa and teaches IDT. He is on Twitter and Facebook.

Monarchy and Hinduism both are Nepal’s Foundational Pillars



Since 2006 Nepal’s situation has been further deteriorating. The American intelligence agency CIA and the Christian nations in Europe have spent billions to turn Nepal into a Christian nation and make it a base to launch Free Tibet agitation to disintegrate China. It is learnt that thousands of Tibetan army have been trained in the northern districts of Nepal in the form of armed monks. Christians have poured into the villages of the nation to convert the people there. China is cognizant of these conspiracies and is ready to take action if necessary. For its security China is ready to face imperialist forces. China is a good neighbor. We don’t have to be suspicious of China. But if China enters Nepal with force for its national security the country will turn into an international battleground. It will be very dangerous for Nepal. It could turn into a world war. What will happen to Nepal then? Will its existence remain intact? Nepal could meet the fate of Afghanistan and Iraq.

We must not allow a situation that endangers the national security of China. We must seek all options for this but what options do we have on hand. We cannot always rely on arms for solution of such problems. If the royal institution is reinstated in Nepal it could provide a way for solution. The royal institution of Nepal wedged between China and India is such a pillar which can bring a balance between these two giant nations. It is a symbol of peace. So we must respect Nepal’s monarchical system and for that we must enthrone the King in his throne.

Under foreign direction we demolished the foundation of our house and built a house of sand over it. This is our crisis. Now we must think without prejudice for peace and stability. There are many republicans among us. We must not compare Nepal with the other countries. The republican system in Nepal must be abolished and the monarchy be continued. Foreign conspiratorial activities will stop in presence of the royal institution. The CIA and the Europe’s Christian nations will return and so will China. During his visit to Nepal Indian Prime Minister, a strong Hindu nationalist-Narendra Modi did not speak a word regarding Nepal’s monarchical system and the world’s only Hindu kingdom. It is suspicious that a Hindu nationalist leader like Modi remained silent on Nepal’s foundational pillars.

In India 80 per cent of the population is Hindu. During the 1000 years of Muslim and English rule the Hindu shrines were destroyed and vandalized; and India desecrated and Hindu values harmed. India became Independent in 1947 after a great struggle by Indian nationalists. The constitution of the independent India declared itself 'secular'. A secular India was established following a joint effort between Hindu, Muslim and Christian’s to draft a new constitution. It is not possible now to declare India a Hindu nation. It is not possible constitutionally. India should have been a Hindu nation from 1947. But Mahatma Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru and other leaders wanted secular system to create the harmonious among all the religions. Then, the secular tradition has established.

But during the last decade, when Congress (I) was in power, Sonia Gandhi- the widow of Rajiv Gandhi forgot the norms of secular system and its tradition. It was a matter of grief that during Congress (I) rule Hindus became second class citizens in India. The all Indian administrative system, the intelligence and even the cabinet all became the tools of Christian. Prime Minister Manmohan Singh was only a puppet. The remaining pride of Hindus of 'Bharatbarsha' was at risk during the dark period of Sonia Gandhi. Due to the corrupt regime, the people of India became furious and they supported the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP).

Since May 2014, the BJP in power, and the BJP Govt. must reconstruct the Hindu shrines, temples and Dhams and have to inform the world the glory of Hindu religion being a secular country. Muslim and Christian’s right to live freely with their respective, they must feel respected in India. But the Hindu religion should be in top priority and there should be punished if anyone persuades others to change their religion. The Hindu nationalist party-BJP will be revered as a great party if it succeeds in persuading the Indian government. Nepal & India should focus- the constructive role on Hinduism restoring the only one Hindu kingdom as one epitome in the world.

This will promote Hindu religion and its stature in the world. From the very beginning, the BJP and Indian PM Narendra Modi have been fighting for Hindu values and Indian nationalism. We are happy that the Hindu nationalist party has won India to keep intact the identity of India and Hinduism. However, we Nepali people are in doubt after observing the visit of Indian PM Modi who remained silent on Hinduism and monarchy in Nepal. After all, we hope that PM Modi will support constitutional monarchy and Hindu kingdom in Nepal. Being a Hindu Santa Narendra Modi should carve his name on hearts of all Hindus in the world and not marble only.

In 2006 uprising Indian Congress (I) and its intelligence agency RAW had used the corrupt leaders in Maoist, UML and Nepali Congress for the uprising after a 12 point understanding in November 2005. The evidences say- S.D Muni (Professor of J.N.U and the policymaker of south block) in his article 'Dealing with a new Nepal' in The Hindu Daily on 15th September 2008 has conceded that India had provided one billion rupees for running the agitation.' With those resources along with the guide-lines of south-block, they could forge the Jana-Anandolan. This was the mysterious design for our country. At a meeting held between the Indian Foreign Secretary Nirupama Rao and a high ranking US official, Richard Holbrooke January 18, 2010, the Indian foreign secretary during a two hour long working breakfast had accepted that Indian establishment had funded the Maoists' rebellion in Nepal and that eventually became counterproductive to India' The detail of the Rao-Holbrooke conversation was later forwarded by the US ambassador in New Delhi to the US government that the WikiLeaks has made public. - Telegraph Nepal, 7th Dec.2010 ' India accepts funding Nepal Maoists to gain favor: '

After the agreement with the king, the uprising stooped, but later secularism, republic and federalism was forcibly imposed against the agreement. If BJP and Modi want to adopt the path chosen by Congress (I) then Nepali people will not support them. If CIA and European nations’ activities in Nepal continue the Red Army of China will enter in Nepal and then India also cannot secure. We Nepali people contributed in supporting BJP and Narendra Modi to come to power in India. But the major parties – UCPN (Maoist), UML and NC – did not want BJP’s victory. However, PM Modi spoke in favor of Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal and he spoke in favor of the stooges of Congress (I) and RAW.

Narendra Modi donated millions worth of red sandal wood to Pashupatinath Temple and also donated millions in cash. This is his greatness. But it is mysterious that he did not utter the word ‘Hindu’ when he was in Nepal-the holy place of Hinduism and Buddhism. How can we trust PM Modi if he chooses to tread the path of Congress (I) and RAW? Although we have been very close to India in geographical and cultural terms India has never fully trusted Nepal. Due to some anti-Nepal diplomats and intellectuals in India Nepali people have started trusting China more and they oppose India.

How can we not be suspicious towards India when it wants to intervene in Nepal’s domestic issues? We will never support the Indian bullying attitude and intervention. We Nepali people are not supporters of China or anti-Indian. We want balanced relations with both China and India. BJP must materialize its respect towards Nepal. If BJP wants to follow the path adopted by Congress (I), it may be suicidal to the security of India. During the Indian External Affairs Minister Sushma Swaraj’s visit to Nepal accompanying the very suspicious diplomat Rakesh Sood. BJP must boycott the advices from SD Muni who always disregards -the royal institution and Hindu status of Nepal. Likewise, advices of Shyam Sharan, who conspired against Nepal, and who had created the anti-India slogans and rifted Nepal-India relations, must not be entertained. The government led by PM Modi must be careful from the conspiracy of Congress (I)

The Nepalese monarchs never opposed India and the kings were and are not anti-India. The fact is that the Nepalese monarchs held special right for carrying out ritualistic worship in many Hindu shrines and temples in India. Some intellectuals in India bypassed this fact and instigated anti-Nepal activities. This increased anti-Indian sentiment in Nepal. It is true that Nepali monarchs did not support Congress (I)’s anti-Nepal activities and nefarious conspiracies against Nepal. Nepali monarchs are always supportive of Hindu status in Nepal and India. So, the Indian PM, the leader of BJP- Modi must have a clear stance regarding Nepal’s royal institution and Hindu status. If PM Modi is free of conspiracies being hatched against Nepal he will win the hearts of Nepali people and all the Hindus in all over the world. Nepali people will not be influenced by sweet speeches and rhetoric. There cannot be cordial Nepal-India relations until India respects Nepal’s foundational pillars- the monarchy and Hindu Kingdom.

We are confident that Modi led government will play a constructive and diplomatic role proposing world Hindu existence as a model 'Nepal the only Hindu kingdom in all over the world' where constitutional monarchy and Hindu status should be retained. Then only Nepal and India can enjoy cordial and lasting relations.
Email:dirgharajprasai@gmail.com

Good Governance for Economic Growth and Development in Nepal Himalaya



The official bilateral visit after 17 years of gap by the Indian Prime minister Narendra Modi and, especially, his address to the Nepalese parliament has further brought into discussions, debates and discourses in Nepalese politics/societies from smaller teashops to the bigger institutions whether Nepal has to promptly realize the importance of economic growth and development and act accordingly or cluster to the political turn-over for shorter position and power. No doubt does the 2-Day Modi Visit to Nepal make a clear message that this is the time to make economic and development revolution for Nepal with the existing resources available within-no more application or mimicry of any kind of development model; be them Western or Latin American or Chinese or Indian or any kind; rather the Home-made model of Nepal Himalaya itself for its economic growth and development, basically strengthening hydro and tourism as the engine of the modern economy. However, there seem blurred visibility of economic growth and development in developing/least developed countries like Nepal unless ‘good governance’ is practiced, and thereby creating an environment for domestic investment, Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), trade and Overseas Development Assistance (ODA) in boosting economic activities in Nepal Himalaya.

With the end of WW II, there emerges an international assistance system to assist developing nations based on the agreement made in Breton Woods conference in 1944 which further led to a Washington Consensus in late 70s (Williamson, 1990). Marshal Plan as the first and foremost foreign aid has made a remarkable success in building infrastructures in Europe. With this, a number of multi/bilateral donor agencies have made greater ODA transfer in various forms to developing nations in Africa and Asia. Most of them seem to have massive failures. However, the success stories of Mini Dragons (South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong and Singapore) have developed newer insight- that is good governance put in priority can play major role for economic growth and development in developing/least developed countries. As a matter of fact, this is to cite that good governance as the primary concern for structural adjustment program in 80s has been largely carried in disbursing aid to developing nations (Sachs, 2005).

Looking at the situation of economic growth and development in South Korea and Taiwan, some scholars state that both of these countries have gone through authoritarian regime for longer period of time (Fritz and Rocha Menocal, 2007:536). If this is to check more minutely to the circumstances of these countries, good governance can be traced in matters like rule of law, foreign direct investment, minimal corruption and developmental ethics in most of the regimes after 1950s. Late President Park, for an instance, has had coup for political power and seems to be authoritarian in the eyes of the people; however all his activities after the presidential election looks as if he has tried his best to maintain rule of law, minimal corruption and environment for re/investment for economic activities. This is amazing that GDP of South Korea has dramatically increased up to 8-10% even in his successor s authoritarian regime. It shows that good governance is not always obtained in democratic practices. Sometimes, even autocratic and authoritarian regimes maintain good governance with the commitment and good leadership to economic growth and development.

Similarly, there are a number of countries like Chile, Cuba, Costa Rica, Brazil and Argentina in Latin America which have gone through communist, socialist and democratic regimes later in the years. However, all of them have maintained good governance to the fruition of economic growth and development. The environment for domestic investment, FDI, trade and ODA disbursement in the presence of consensus, rule of law, less corruption history and conflicts within or outside. As a matter of fact, all of these countries have turned to be upper-middle income countries which once had agrarian economy. The other corner of the globe China, India, Vietnam and Bangladesh have the same stories to tell where the state has played the greatest role for development (Evans, 1995). All of them have in one way or the other undergone communist, socialist and democratic system; however all of them have massively maintained rule of law, less corruption, inter/ intra conflicts among political parties, leadership and commitment for economic growth and development.

The major concern is of Africa where massive foreign aid has been a failure, rather promoting corruption in the country (Moyo, 2009). Moreover, nepotism and despotism in the bureaucracy, unfair election, minimal rule of law, massive inter/ intra conflicts, poor leadership and lack of commitment in the leaders which have resulted poor economic activities and development in the continent. Looking at this situation, International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Bank (WB) and other Official Economic Cooperation Development and Development Assistance Committee (OECD/DAC) have asked the continent good governance as the pre-condition for their support. The structural adjustment program in 1980s is not other than the multiple failures of ODA in the continent; however it could not pave its way out (Fritz and Rocha Menocal, 2007: 540). In this line, this is not bad to assume that aid is no more working in Africa; instead fair trade can be apt in boosting the economies of these countries (Moyo, 2009) However, a couple of countries like Ghana, Botswana, Uganda and Mozambique are making significant progress in the midst of confusions and frustrations. This is not other than good leadership, commitment, rule of law, consensus among political parties and people and fair elections.

Sandwiched between China and India, Nepal Himalaya is away from infrastructures of development, lack of democratic practices, leading to lack of economic growth and development. Traditional agriculture, geographical complexities, and a complex portion of non/ethnic communities have got higher percentage of im/migration to plains and overseas for their economic activities (Sharma, 1997). Till the date most of the people still hang down the South, mostly India, Middle East and Europe in pursuit of employment and other economic activities. As a result, the communities have long been practicing poor governance, traditional/indigenous knowledge, cultural values and social mores in operating their everyday life which cannot create an environment for domestic investment, FDI, ODA in boosting the economies of the country in the present context.

Flashed back, the earliest form of Rana Regime has absolutely nothing to do with the people and the state itself. Personal capital accumulation, high corruption rate, luxurious life styles, shift of power from one to the other in their circles, no sense of promoting any kind of infrastructures, and discouragement in investment and economic growth. From any of the angles, the time was not in favor of the public that founded the worst life in terms of democracy, human rights and economic prosperity (Joshi and Rose, 1966:551). The first and the foremost rhetoric was that they were unlikely to promote democratic values and infrastructures of development, primarily education. A few schools were opened for their children, not for the public, thinking that it could be the major factor to overturn their regime in the long run. As a matter of fact, they carried out the basic tools like oppression, suppression and even bloodsheds in times of needs so as to make the societies live with no more voices for human rights, economic growth and development.

All the way down to Monarchial regime, government policies during the period including school education, for an instance, have promoted nation and nationalism as parameters of civilization development while other oppressed and suppressed were regarded minimal, submissive and primitive by nature (Hachhethu, 1990:178). Development programs largely subdued by so-called elites have stigmatized the disadvantaged and unwanted nationals in a number of ways. Moreover, the regional and local development projects, plans and policies of the nationals made have further displaced them and fostered greater disparity in Nepalese society. Besides, marginalized groups have not been encouraged in bringing them to mainstream economic activities.

After the success of People’s Mass Movement I (1990), the politics-led plans and policies, development practices and approaches of the past have marginalized indigenous and tribal groups. The first Eight five –year- plan (1992–97) developed by democratic government elected through popular elections following the restoration of democracy in 1990 could not officially acknowledge the existence of suppressed portion of humanity until 1997 (Srivastava, 2008:5). Therefore, the plans and projects brought into practice before were very impractical and unscientific to these groups. The Nepal government initiated plan for the ethnic groups only in the Ninth Plan (1997-2002) even if the plan got introduced in 1956 for the first time in Nepal (Srivastava, 2008:8). It is obvious that the plan made lacked quantitative and qualitative targets as per thought. Similarly, the four-pillar poverty reduction strategy, social inclusion and good governance are the targets made in the Tenth Plan 2002-07 (Srivastava, 2008:10). But because of civil unrest between the government and the Maoists initiating in 1996, the royal takeover in 2005, instable governments time and again, there appears no more improvement as expected in socio-economic, political and developmental phenomena in the country.

Even if democracy was restored in 1990, the constitution got failed in drafting absolute constitution and thereby respecting the identity of ethnic nationals, marginalized groups of people, women, children and Madhesi people at large. In the name of addressing the rights of these people, Maoists seem to have had insurgency for ten years, demanding newer constitution which could truly be the inclusion of those displaced and disadvantaged portion of the people by the state. This insight has further led to a decade long Maoists insurgency in the country and finally making people involved in People’s Mass Movement (PMM) II (2006) for Federal Democratic Country along with eliminating all the structures of Monarchial regime in the country and thereby establishing people’s regime forever. However, Ethnic and Madhes Uprisings in restructuring the state have further led to failure of the first round of Constitution Assembly (CA) a couple of years back ( Hachhethu, 2007).

What has been seen is that mostly African and Asian developing/underdeveloped countries with multi/bilateral foreign aid in the form of cash have further pushed them back in terms of economic growth and development. The emerging writer/economist Dambisa Moyo in her book (Dead Aid: 2009) writes aid is no more working in Africa, rather it has created dependency on the donors, whereas professor/economist William Easterly opines in his book (The White Man’s Burden: 2006) that these people are to be taught how to fish rather than providing them the fishing nets . In the same line the latest bilateral aid 1 billion dollar cash by Indian government is unlikely to do good for hydro and infrastructural development in the present context of Nepal where nepotism and despotism, unfair election, lack of leadership quality, lack of commitment in leaders, lack of rule of law, instable governments time and again, and inter/intra conflicts among major political parties are rampant.

Examining the situation Nepal has gone through, this is more likely to cite that ‘good governance’ has massively lacked all the way down in promoting investment, trade, FDI and the utilization of foreign multi/bilateral aid, whether it is non/concessional, in the form of cash. This scenario, if continues further, is likely to push Nepal years and years back in matters of economic growth and infrastructural development. The authoritarian or democratic regimes Nepal has made through have failed in creating an environment for re/investment, trade, use of foreign aid, and the proper utilization of existing natural resources, primarily water, medicinal herbs and all the elements of tourism. This is not other than ‘poor governance’ from the inception to all the way now and that projects the country is on the way to the verge of failure and thereby minimal economic growth and development in Nepal Himalaya.

The author can be reached at bojindratu@gmail.com

Malaysia Airlines to cut 6,000 staff in overhaul

KUALA LUMPUR, MALAYSIA, , Aug 29: Malaysia Airlines will cut 6,000 workers as part of a $1.9 billion overhaul announced Friday to revive its damaged brand after being hit by double passenger jet disasters.
The staff reduction represents about 30 percent of its current workforce of 20,000. A search for a new CEO is underway but there is no move to change the airline´s name, which some branding experts had said was necessary for a successful makeover.
Khazanah Nasional, the state investment company that owns 69 percent of the airline, said the overhaul includes the establishment of a new company that will take over the existing Malaysia Airlines business and its reduced staff.
The revamp and new investment in the carrier will cost about 6 billion Malaysian ringgit ($1.9 billion). Analysts say the substantial staff cuts suggest the airline will reduce flights to Europe and China.
The twin disasters and ongoing financial woes "created a perfect storm for the restructuring to take place," said Khazanah Managing Director Azman Mokhtar. "We need to have a fresh start."
The plan aims to "strike a balance between Malaysia´s desire to revive a national carrier against the prudent use of public funds," he said.
The airline will be removed from the Malaysian stock exchange and taken completely under the wing of the government. Khazanah, which previously announced that it plans to take 100 percent ownership, aims to restore Malaysia Airlines to profitability by the end of 2017 and then relist its shares on the stock exchange by the end of 2019.
A substantial revamp has long been on the cards for Malaysia Airlines, which was struggling with chronic financial problems even before it was hit by the double disasters this year.
Investigators continue to scour the southern Indian Ocean for Malaysia Airlines Flight 370 which veered far of course while en route from Kuala Lumpur to Beijing on March 8 with 239 people on board. In July, 298 people were killed when Flight 17 was blasted out of the sky as it flew over an area of eastern Ukraine controlled by pro-Russian separatists.
The tragedies have scarred the airline´s brand, once associated with high-quality service. Travelers on recent long-haul flights have posted photos on social media of nearly empty cabins and departure lounges. The airline says passengers fell 11 percent in July from the year before.
Azman said Khazanah´s 6 billion ringgit investment "will not be a bailout" and that the investment company will get its money back if the airline follows strict conditions laid out under the 12-point plan restructuring plan.
Khazanah, which has previously pumped 7 billion ringgit into the airline, said it would consider selling all or some of its stake to "strategic buyers from the private sector" once the carrier returns to the stock market.
But after four previous restructuring in a dozen years, the latest plan was met with some skepticism by analysts.
"It´s like a fairy tale that you tell your baby to put him to sleep. It has a happy ending," said Maybank analyst Mohshin Aziz.
He said said staff reductions were one of the restructuring plan´s key points because "that automatically tells you they´re going to cut their capacity by a similar quantity — one third — as well."
Analysts have been predicting the airline will cut unprofitable routes to China and Western Europe, where many of the passengers in the two disasters were from.
Azman said Khazanah has recommended to the government that the Malaysia Airlines name remain unchanged. He also said there are no plans to sell its profitable maintenance arm.
In releasing its latest quarterly financial result, a loss, on Thursday, Malaysia Airlines said the worst financial impact from the disasters will come in the second half of this year.
Khazanah has begun a search for a new chief executive for the airline, which is likely to be completed by the end of this year.
Current CEO Ahmad Jauhari Yahya will continue to head Malaysia Airlines until its new incarnation is established in July next year.

Apple production to increase by 28 pc in Mustang

MYAGDI, Aug 06: In Mustang, also known as the apple kingdom, apple production is expected to increase by 28 percent this year.
It is estimated that production will increase due to favorable weather, said Senior Agriculture Development Officer of District Agriculture Development Office Mustang, Rewati Raman Paudel.
Last year, it was produced 3,500 metric tonnes in the district and this year it is expected to be produced 4,500 mt, he said.
Mustang farmers harvest apples from the fourth week of August and they are happy that there is good market and increased production.
In Mustang, apple farming is in Marpha, Tukuche, Jomsom, Lete, Kagbeni, Muktinath and Jong in 867 hectares of land, said the Office.
As the production decreased last year, the price was above Rs. 65 per kg but this year consumers can get at Rs. 60 by highest. The Office said the farmers are asked to lower the price as production has increased.
Last year, 33,000 apple saplings were distributed for commercial production, and apple farmers affiliating with cooperatives have been increasing in the past few years.
As against apple saplings imported from out of the district, this year, this problem will be removed.
Some 70,000 plants are demanded annually and they will be produced in the district itself, said Poudel. Last year, the farming was expanded in 110 hectares of land and commercial farmers are increasing.

Jhapa farmers conduct frogs marriage wishing for rainfall

KAKARVITTA (JHAPA), Jul 30: Farmers in Jhapa, a Tarai district in eastern Nepal, conducted the marriage ceremony of frogs today wishing for rainfall in the district which has not witnessed rainfall till the end of July.
In the ceremony, farmers got two frogs married with all the antecedent rituals. The marriage ceremony of the frogs was held at the Durgapur-based Durga Temple in Kankai Municipality-1 with a hope that such unique ritual would make Indra, the god of Rain, happy and that he would bless them with rainfall.
The marriage was performed by temple priest Tankamani Kafle.
The bride frog was brought from Kankai- 7 and bridegroom from the Kanakai Municipality-1, according to local farmer Yashoda Bhattarai. The temple management committee made necessary arrangements for performing the event.

Ebola outbreak reaches Senegal‚ riots break out in Guinea

DAKAR/CONAKRY:, Aug 30: The West African state of Senegal became the fifth country to be hit by the world's worst Ebola outbreak on Friday, while riots broke out in neighbouring Guinea's remote southeast where infection rates are rising fast.
In the latest sign that the outbreak of the virus, which has already killed at least 1,550 people, is spinning out of control, the World Health Organisation (WHO) said that Ebola cases rose last week at the fastest pace since the epidemic began in West Africa in March.
The epidemic has defied efforts by governments to control it, prompting the leading charity fighting the outbreak, Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF), to call for the U.N. Security Council to take charge of efforts to stop it.
Including the fatalities, more than 3,000 have been infected since the virus was detected in the remote jungles of southeastern Guinea in March and quickly spread across the border to Liberia and Sierra Leone. It has also touched Nigeria, where six people have died.
Sierra Leone's President Ernest Bai Koroma dismissed his Health Minister Miatta Kargbo on Friday over her handling of the epidemic, which has killed more than 400 people in the former British colony.
Liberia's Information Minister Lewis Brown said that two African healthcare workers treated with the experimental ZMapp Ebola drug would be released from hospital on Saturday, after making a full recovery.
Scientists on Friday also reported that ZMapp, the drug that last week cured two American aid workers who contracted the disease in Liberia, had cured all 18 lab monkeys infected with the virus in laboratory tests. Senegal's first case is a student from Guinea.
Senegalese Health Minister Awa Marie Coll Seck said the man turned up for treatment at a hospital in the capital Dakar on Tuesday, concealing the fact that he had had close contact with victims in his home country.
"We are tracing his whole itinerary and also identifying anyone who had contact with the patient, who now that he has been diagnosed is much more cooperative and supplied all the necessary information," the minister said.
A Health Ministry official, who asked not to be named, said that the 21-year-old crossed into Senegal via its southern border with Guinea and had been living in the densely populated Dakar suburb of Parcelles Assainies for weeks. He added that the man appeared to have a good chance of recovering.
The man had been under surveillance by health authorities in Guinea because of his contact with Ebola victims but escaped to Senegal, Seck said.
Residents in Dakar reacted with anger and concern. "When you are sick, why do you leave your own country to export the disease to another?" asked radio host Taib Soce on RFM, a popular station owned by Senegalese music star Youssou N'dour.
In an attempt to prevent the spread of the virus, Senegal last week banned flights to and from three of the affected countries and shut its land border with Guinea.
The country, a regional hub for U.N. agencies and aid groups, has also refused to give clearance for U.N. aid flights to Ebola-hit countries in a move that humanitarian workers say is hampering their ability to respond to the epidemic.
CATASTROPHE WARNING
The director of the United States Centers for Disease Control (CDC) warned on Friday of a "catastrophe" if emergency action were not taken immediately to reverse the trend of rising cases.
"There is time to avoid a catastrophe but only if immediate and urgent action is taken at every level," Tom Frieden said in the Sierra Leone capital Freetown.
The World Health Organization (WHO) said on Thursday that the actual number of Ebola cases could be up to four times higher than reported and said 20,000 people in total could be infected before the outbreak ends.
In the remote southeastern Guinean city of Nzerekore, riots broke out on Thursday night over rumours that health workers had infected people with Ebola, a Red Cross official and residents said.
The government of Guinea says it has the epidemic under control, but the number of cases has flared up in southern Guinea, a trend the government blames on people spilling over the borders from Liberia and Sierra Leone.
A crowd of young men, some armed with clubs and knives, set up barricades across Nzerekore on Thursday and threatened to attack the hospital before security forces moved in to restore order. Gunshots were fired and several people were injured, said Youssouf Traore, president of the Guinean Red Cross.
"A rumour, which was totally false, spread that we had sprayed the market in order to transmit the virus to locals," Traore said. "People revolted and resorted to violence, prompting soldiers to intervene."
Local Red Cross workers had to flee to the military camp with their medical equipment. Another resident said the security forces were preventing people leaving their neighbourhoods overnight. More than 400 people have died in Guinea, though the infection rate is slower than in Liberia and Sierra Leone.
FINANCIAL SUPPORT
The Liberian government said it would end its quarantine of the oceanfront West Point neighbourhood of its capital Monrovia at 0600 GMT on Saturday after residents there cooperated with authorities in putting in place health checks and public education about the disease.
Soldiers opened fire on angry West Point residents last week when the quarantine was imposed, following an attack days before on a holding centre for Ebola victims in the teeming district.
The WHO, on Thursday, unveiled a $490 million road map to bring the outbreak under control over the next nine months.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) has said it may give more support to affected countries. "We're working on a financing package subject to the approval of the IMF Executive Board to help Liberia along with Guinea and Sierra Leone mitigate any socio-economic impacts of the epidemic," IMF Liberia representative Charles Amo-Yartey said on Friday.
In Freetown, a new WHO-backed mobile laboratory opened this week, speeding up the time needed to test suspected cases.
But often financial pledges have not translated into more clinics and staff on the ground, said Jorge Castilla, epidemiologist with the European Commission's Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection Department.
"I've seen many declarations, I see treatment centres on the maps but I know they are not working," he said in an interview after a trip to the affected countries.
Suspicion of healthcare workers has dogged government responses to the Ebola outbreak across West Africa.
Frightened by the sight of healthcare workers clad from head to toe in plastic protective gear and wearing protective masks, many locals have shunned their assistance, often preferring to die in their own homes.
So far, more than 120 healthcare workers have died in the epidemic. Liberia reported five new cases of infection among them in a single day this week.

3rd doctor dies from Ebola in Sierra Leone

FREETOWN, SIERRA LEONE, , Aug 27: A third top doctor has died from Ebola in Sierra Leone, a government official said Wednesday, as health workers tried to determine how a fourth scientist also contracted the disease before being evacuated to Europe.
The announcements raised worries about Sierra Leone´s fight against Ebola, which has killed more than 1,400 people across West Africa. The World Health Organization said it was sending a team to investigate how the epidemiologist now undergoing treatment in Germany may have contracted the disease that kills more than half its victims.
"The international surge of health workers is extremely important and if something happens, if health workers get infected and it scares off other international health workers from coming, we will be in dire straits," said Christy Feig, director of WHO communications in West Africa.
Dr. Sahr Rogers had been working in a health clinic in the eastern town of Kenema when he contracted Ebola, said Sierra Leonean presidential adviser Ibrahim Ben Kargbo on Wednesday. Two other top doctors already have succumbed to Ebola since the outbreak emerged there earlier this year.
Rogers´ death marks yet another setback for a country still recovering from years of civil war, where there are only two doctors per 100,000 people, according to WHO. By comparison, there are 245 doctors per 100,000 in the United States.
The Senegalese epidemiologist who was evacuated to Germany had been doing surveillance work for the U.N. health agency, said Feig, the WHO spokeswoman. The position involves coordinating the outbreak response by working with lab experts, health workers and hospitals, but does not usually involve direct treatment of patients.
"He wasn´t in treatment centers normally," she said by telephone from Sierra Leone. "It´s possible he went in there and wasn´t properly covered, but that´s why we´ve taken this unusual measure — to try to figure out what happened."
WHO said late Tuesday that it was pulling out its team from the eastern Sierra Leonean city of Kailahun, where the epidemiologist working with the organization was recently infected. The team was exhausted and the added stress of a colleague getting sick could increase the risk of mistakes, said Daniel Kertesz, the organization´s representative in the country.
Canada also announced late Tuesday it was evacuating a three-member mobile laboratory team from Sierra Leone after people in their hotel were diagnosed with Ebola. The Public Agency of Canada said none of the team members was showing any signs of illness but that they would remain in voluntary isolation during the 21-day incubation period.
Health workers have been especially vulnerable because of their close proximity to patients, who can spread the virus through bodily fluids. WHO says more than 120 health workers have died in the four affected countries — Sierra Leone, Liberia, Guinea and Nigeria.
While some local health workers have lacked proper protective gear, the teams from the World Health Organization and Doctors Without Borders are well-equipped and trained in how to use the protective suiting.
A team of two experts was sent Tuesday to investigate whether the case occurred through straightforward exposure to Ebola patients, or something else, said Feig, the WHO spokeswoman. She said the team is checking to see if there is an infection risk in the living and working environments that had not been discovered.
There is no proven treatment for Ebola, so health workers primarily focus on isolating the sick. But a small number of patients in this outbreak have received an experimental drug called ZMapp. The London hospital treating a British nurse infected in Sierra Leone, William Pooley, said he is now receiving the drug.
It was unclear where the doses for Pooley came from. The California-based maker of ZMapp has said its supplies are exhausted.
Two Americans, a Spaniard and three health workers in Liberia have received ZMapp. It is unclear if the drug is effective. The Americans have been released from the hospital, but the Spaniard died, as did a Liberian doctor.

Liberian doctor who received rare Ebola drug ZMapp dies

MONROVIA: , Aug 26: A Liberian doctor who treated victims of an Ebola epidemic and then contracted the disease himself has died even though he was given the experimental drug ZMapp, Liberia's information minister said on Monday.
Abraham Borbor's death could curb optimism about the drug that mounted last week when two U.S. aid workers who caught Ebola in Liberia were declared free of the virus after receiving the same treatment at a hospital in the United States.
People in Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia are desperate for a cure for the contagious hemorrhagic fever that has killed at least 1,427 people since March in the deadliest outbreak the world has seen.
But Mapp Biopharmaceutical says it will take time to replenish its exhausted stocks of ZMapp and scientists say it is too early to confirm the value of the medication that has been tested on laboratory animals but not previously on humans.
The disease has reaped a grim toll on healthcare workers, often working long hours in tough conditions at low-tech facilities, often lacking adequate protective gear.
Nearly 100 have died, according to the World Health Organization, including doctor Sheik Umar Khan, who was considered a hero in his native Sierra Leone for leading the fight against Ebola.
Doctors at the Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF) facility where he was treated agonized over the ethics of giving him ZMapp and the risk of a backlash if it was perceived to have killed him. They decided against it.
Victims suffer vomiting, diarrhoea, internal and external bleeding in the final stages of the disease, leaving their bodies coated in the virus.
Liberia, where Ebola is spreading fastest, received three doses of ZMapp on Aug. 13 and used them to treat three doctors: Borbor and Zukunis Ireland from Liberia and Aroh Cosmos Izchukwu from Nigeria.
Initially, officials said they were responding to treatment but Information Minister Lewis Brown said Borbor died on Sunday. A Spanish priest treated with ZMapp this month also died.
OUTBREAK ADVANCING
There are other drugs in the pipeline and the outbreak has added urgency to research into a disease with no cure or vaccine, but all the drugs are unproven and have yet to clear even the initial stage of clinical trials.
In one sign of potential progress, four monkeys survived Ebola after being injected with Immunovaccine Inc's experimental vaccine, the Canadian company said on Monday, an announcement that sent its stock soaring.
West Africa's first Ebola outbreak was detected five months ago in the forests of southeastern Guinea but it was not until Aug. 8 that the World Health Organization declared an international health emergency and promised more resources.
That delay drew criticism from some health groups, who said the U.N. health agency should have responded faster.
"It appears that the outbreak is still advancing and is advancing in many parts of the country (Sierra Leone)," David Nabarro, Ebola response coordinator for the United Nations, told a news conference in Sierra Leone.
In a bid to stop the virus, West African governments have closed borders, halted flights from affected countries, stopped international conferences and increased medical provision.
Liberia declared a curfew last week and put two neighbourhoods under quarantine.
FLIGHT BAN
Fears of contamination on flights escalated in July when a man infected with Ebola arrived at an airport in Lagos, Nigeria, and collapsed. He died and five people including health care workers who treated him have died in that country since then. Nabarro urged countries to reverse flight bans.
"The understandable decision by some countries not to want to receive aeroplanes that have touched ground in this country or in its neighbours, that understandable decision has huge operational impact ... on our ability to bring in staff and to bring in goods," he said.
Ebola has highlighted the gap between the care afforded to Western patients and many who are treated in Africa. Liberia, for example, used a school in a run down neighbourhood of the capital as a quarantine centre and patients lay on the floor.
The family of a British volunteer nurse repatriated from Sierra Leone after contracting the virus said on Monday he was in the best place possible for treatment.
William Pooley, 29, is the first Briton to test positive for the disease. He was flown home in a specially adapted Royal Air Force cargo plane and transported to an isolation unit at the Royal Free Hospital in London.
The first recorded Ebola case took place in what is now Democratic Republic of Congo and the country declared a new Ebola outbreak in its northern Equateur province on Sunday after two of eight patients tested for Ebola came back positive.
The U.N. health agency said it had sent in protective equipment for medical staff, which is not connected to the epidemic in West Africa.
Liberia's health ministry announced on Monday that a five-person medical team from Democratic Republic of Congo had just arrived to help in the fight against Ebola.

Jolie, Pitt wed privately at chateau in France

NEW YORK, , Aug 29: Angelina Jolie and Brad Pitt were married Saturday in the French hamlet of Correns, a spokesman for the couple says.
Jolie and Pitt wed in a small chapel in a private ceremony attended by family and friends at Provence´s Chateau Miraval. In advance of the nondenominational civil ceremony, Pitt and Jolie obtained a marriage license from a local California judge. The judge also conducted the ceremony in France.
The couple´s children took part in the wedding. Jolie walked the aisle with her eldest sons Maddox and Pax. Zahara and Vivienne threw flower petals. Shiloh and Knox served as ring bearers, the spokesman says.
Jolie and Pitt´s wedding caps years of rampant speculation on when the couple would officially tie the knot. Pitt once said that he didn´t want to marry until gay marriage was legal, but in recent years, both said they intended to. They were engaged in early 2012 after some seven years together.
"It´s an exciting prospect, even though for us, we´ve gone further than that," Pitt told The Associated Press in an interview in November 2012. "But to concretize it in that way, it actually means more to me than I thought it would. It means a lot to our kids."
They have six children together, including three they adopted: 13-year-old Maddox, from Cambodia; 10-year-old Pax, from Vietnam; and 9-year-old Zahara, from Ethiopia. The couple´s three biological children are 8-year-old Shiloh, and Knox and Vivienne, 6-year-old twins.
This is the second marriage for Pitt, who wed Jennifer Aniston in 2000. They divorced in 2005.
Jolie was previously married to British actor Jonny Lee Miller for three years in the late ´90s and to Billy Bob Thornton for three years before divorcing in 2003.
Both Jolie and Pitt are prepping movies. Jolie´s second directorial effort, the World War II odyssey "Unbroken," will be released in December. Pitt stars in the upcoming World War II drama "Fury," due out Oct. 17.

Ex-Myanmar beauty queen accused of stealing $100,000 crown

YANGON, MYANMAR, , Aug 29: ASSOCIATED PRESS A Myanmar beauty queen who was stripped of her title for allegedly being rude and dishonest has run off with the $100,000 jeweled crown, a South Korea-based pageant said Friday.
Myanmar, which only recently emerged from a half-century military rule and self-imposed isolation, started sending contestants to international beauty pageants for the first time in decades in 2012.
May Myat Noe was crowned Miss Asia Pacific World in Seoul in May 2014. But, according to David Kim, director of media for the Seoul-based pageant, the 18-year-old was a disappointment from the start.
Attempts to reach May Myat Noe for comment were unsuccessful Friday and her Myanmar phone was switched off. According to the online edition of Eleven Media, a Myanmar newspaper, she was back in the country and would address a news conference soon, although it wasn´t clear when.
Following her success, the organizers said they were arranging singing and video deals for her. But they also wanted to change the 5´7" teen´s looks, Kim said.
"We thought she should be more beautiful ... so as soon as she arrived we sent her to the hospital to operate on her breasts," he said.
"It´s our responsibility," he said, adding that sponsors picked up the $10,000 tab, as they have for past winners. "If she has no good nose, then maybe, if she likes, we can operate on her nose. If it´s breasts, then breasts."
Kim said that troubles started from there. The beauty queen brought her mother with her to Seoul for what was supposed to be a 10-day visit, but that quickly turned into three months, incurring extra cost to the organizers, he said.
She "lied" and "never had respect for the main organization, the national director, the manager, media or fans who made her the winner," organizers said in a statement.
May Myat Noe was notified earlier this week that she would have to give up her title and the crown, Kim said. She was also given an airplane ticket back to Yangon, but never showed up, with Eleven Media reporting that she got on an earlier flight.
Kim said she absconded with the bejeweled Swarovski tiara — valued anywhere between $100,000 and $200,000.
"Everyone knows she is no longer the queen, but she thinks as long as she keeps this crown she´s the winner," he said. "She´s not."

Jackie Chan's son detained in Beijing drug bust

BEIJING, , Aug 19: Hong Kong action superstar Jackie Chan´s actor-son Jaycee Chan has been detained in Beijing on drug-related charges, the latest high-profile celebrity to be ensnared in one of China´s biggest anti-drug crackdowns in two decades.
Jaycee Chan, 31, was detained last Thursday together with the 23-year-old Taiwanese movie star Kai Ko, Beijing police said late Monday on their official microblog, identifying them only by their surnames, ages and nationalities. It was unclear why the detentions were announced several days later.
Police said both actors tested positive for marijuana and admitted using the drug, and that 100 grams of it were taken from Chan´s home.
Jaycee Chan´s management, M´Stones International, apologized to the public on his behalf for the "social impact" caused in a statement on their website. It said they would "supervise his rehabilitation and help him return to the right path."
Several celebrities have been detained on drug charges following a declaration in June by President Xi Jinping that illegal drugs should be wiped out and that offenders would be severely punished. In Beijing alone, more than 7,800 people have been caught in the crackdown, police said.
Chinese state broadcaster CCTV aired footage of a police search of the younger Chan´s home in Beijing in which he is depicted, his face pixelated, showing officers where he stashed bags of marijuana. Police said they acted on a tipoff from the public.
Chan is accused of accommodating drug users, an offense that carries a maximum sentence of three years´ imprisonment — a far more serious charge than that of drug consumption. Two other people detained in the same case were accused of selling drugs while Ko is accused of drug consumption.
China named the elder Chan an anti-drug ambassador in 2009. Ko, the Taiwanese star, was part of an anti-drug campaign two years ago, CCTV reported, showing footage of the campaign in which he joins other celebrities in a chorus declaring: "I don´t use drugs." On Tuesday, Ko was shown on CCTV, his face pixelated, tearfully apologizing to his fans and family.
"I feel very regretful, very sorry to all the people who support me... I´ve been a very bad example, I´ve made a very big mistake," Ko said. In a statement online, his management company, Star Ritz Productions, said Ko had received a 14-day detention and also apologized to the public.
Ko, whose real name is Ko Chen-tung, became a sensation after his 2011 film "You Are the Apple of My Eye," a box-office hit in Taiwan. He won Best New Performer award for his role in the coming-of-age movie at the Golden Horse awards in Taiwan, considered the most prestigious in Chinese-language cinema.
He played the boyfriend of one of the protagonists in China-produced "Tiny Times 3.0," which appealed to young female audiences and knocked "Transformers 4" off the No. 1 spot as the most watched film after its release in the mainland last month.
Illegal drug use has ballooned in China in recent decades, after being virtually eradicated following the 1949 communist revolution. Narcotics began to reappear with the loosening of social controls in the late 1980s.
In more recent years, rising wealth and greater personal freedoms have been accompanied by a growing popularity of methamphetamines and the party drugs Ecstasy and ketamine. They are often bought on social media forums and consumed in nightclubs, leading to periodic police crackdowns.

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National Headlines
Woman hacks husband over family feud
POKHARA: , Sep 02: A woman attacked her husband with a khukuri, leaving him seriously injured, on Tuesday morning.
Maya Nepali of Phirke of Pokhara Sub-Metropolitan City hacked her husband Deepak Nepali (36) in a fit of anger, following family disputes.
Deepak was attacked at around 9:45 am while he was still on bed, according to police Inspector Sundar Tiwari. He was attacked thrice with a sharp weapon, police said.
After the incident, he was rushed to the Prithvichowk-based Gandaki Medical Hospital for treatment. He was later referred to Manipal Hospital. He is said to be in a critical condition.
Police have arrested wife Maya for further investigation into the case.
'Nepal to adopt socialism-oriented economy'
KATHMANDU, NEPAL, Sep 01: Chairperson of Political Dialogue and Consensus Committee (PDCC), under the Constituent Assembly (CA), Dr. Baburam Bhattarai has claimed that political parties have reached near to the consensus to adopt inclusive and socialism-oriented economy in the country.
During his meeting with a media group on Monday he said that parties have agreed in principle on socialism-oriented capitalistic economy. Classical capitalism would not address the current economic, he said in the meeting.
Country never to be without Parliament
KATHMANDU, , Sep 01: A meeting of the Political Dialogue and Consensus Committee (PDCC) on Monday passed a provision which envisions that the country shall not be without a Legislature-Parliament after the promulgation of the new constitution .
Agreeing on the topic of the legislature, the meeting passed a provision that the previous Legislature-Parliament will continue to exist until another election to the Legislature is held.
Committee Chairman Baburam Bhattarai said the meeting also endorsed a provision regarding the constitution of the Constitutional Council comprising the executive head of government, the Chief Justice, the leader of the opposition, the Speaker and also a woman from among the people making notable contribution to different sectors based on the principle of inclusion.
On most of the issues that the dispute resolution sub-committee under the committee forwarded to it after reaching consensus on the contentious issues remaining in the erstwhile constitution al committee, the meeting decided that the appointment of the ambassadors would also be based on the principle of inclusion and proportional representation.
Stating that the committee has been working tirelessly day and night convening meetings every day in a bid to forge consensus on the deadline of January 22, committee Chairman Bhattarai directed the committee members to be compulsorily present in each and every meeting of the committee and to put their party's views rather than individual ones and help forge consensus.
He also said that he was making efforts at reaching consensus on constitution writing as per the set calendar calling a meeting of the 31 parties representing the Constituent Assembly and the two independent CA members with the CA chairman.
Eight absconding convicts nabbed
BELAURI, KANCHANPUR, , Sep 01: A crime investigation and control support team, Mahakali deputed from Far-Western Regional Police has nabbed eight convicts, who were in list of absconding, from Daiji and Beldandi in one day.
The police have intensified its bid to arrest those absconding after convicted by court.
The team caught Sitaram Rana of Beldandi-3, who was slapped an eight-month jail-term by district court Kanchanpur on robbery case in 2067 BS, from Daiji.
Among other netted are Prem Giri, Lalu Giri, Kala Giri, Damma Giri, Lali Giri, Bimala Giri and Jitu Giri of Beldandi-8 on property share case. The court had slapped action against them the same year.
Police arrested them from Beldandi Bazaar area and handed over to the court.
Mid-Hill Highway expansion risks Baglung houses
BAGLUNG: , Sep 01: Denizens of Baglung town area are scared of their possible displacement in course of expansion of Mid-Hill Highway – one of the national pride projects of Nepal government.
Locals have demanded alternative route of the highway, stating hundreds of households of Municipality area would go displaced if the project's criteria of vacating 25-metre wide area on both sides of the road was enforced.
Locals of Baglung Municipality, ward no 1, Ramrekha and ward no 11 Upallochaur have formed a pressure group to wage struggle against the enforcement of the criteria.
At least 200 families along the road sides would be displaced if the 25-meter provision was put in place, said pressure group coordinator KB Ranamagar.
The Baglung Municipality had approved maps for new houses with 15 metre space from road on both sides in course of the construction of Pokhara-Mustang road section.
Locals launched agitation when the Mid-Hill Highway Project is preparing to increase the space criteria to 25-metre.



Malaysia Airlines to cut 6,000 staff in overhaul

KUALA LUMPUR, MALAYSIA, , Aug 29: Malaysia Airlines will cut 6,000 workers as part of a $1.9 billion overhaul announced Friday to revive its damaged brand after being hit by double passenger jet disasters.
The staff reduction represents about 30 percent of its current workforce of 20,000. A search for a new CEO is underway but there is no move to change the airline´s name, which some branding experts had said was necessary for a successful makeover.
Khazanah Nasional, the state investment company that owns 69 percent of the airline, said the overhaul includes the establishment of a new company that will take over the existing Malaysia Airlines business and its reduced staff.
The revamp and new investment in the carrier will cost about 6 billion Malaysian ringgit ($1.9 billion). Analysts say the substantial staff cuts suggest the airline will reduce flights to Europe and China.
The twin disasters and ongoing financial woes "created a perfect storm for the restructuring to take place," said Khazanah Managing Director Azman Mokhtar. "We need to have a fresh start."
The plan aims to "strike a balance between Malaysia´s desire to revive a national carrier against the prudent use of public funds," he said.
The airline will be removed from the Malaysian stock exchange and taken completely under the wing of the government. Khazanah, which previously announced that it plans to take 100 percent ownership, aims to restore Malaysia Airlines to profitability by the end of 2017 and then relist its shares on the stock exchange by the end of 2019.
A substantial revamp has long been on the cards for Malaysia Airlines, which was struggling with chronic financial problems even before it was hit by the double disasters this year.
Investigators continue to scour the southern Indian Ocean for Malaysia Airlines Flight 370 which veered far of course while en route from Kuala Lumpur to Beijing on March 8 with 239 people on board. In July, 298 people were killed when Flight 17 was blasted out of the sky as it flew over an area of eastern Ukraine controlled by pro-Russian separatists.
The tragedies have scarred the airline´s brand, once associated with high-quality service. Travelers on recent long-haul flights have posted photos on social media of nearly empty cabins and departure lounges. The airline says passengers fell 11 percent in July from the year before.
Azman said Khazanah´s 6 billion ringgit investment "will not be a bailout" and that the investment company will get its money back if the airline follows strict conditions laid out under the 12-point plan restructuring plan.
Khazanah, which has previously pumped 7 billion ringgit into the airline, said it would consider selling all or some of its stake to "strategic buyers from the private sector" once the carrier returns to the stock market.
But after four previous restructuring in a dozen years, the latest plan was met with some skepticism by analysts.
"It´s like a fairy tale that you tell your baby to put him to sleep. It has a happy ending," said Maybank analyst Mohshin Aziz.
He said said staff reductions were one of the restructuring plan´s key points because "that automatically tells you they´re going to cut their capacity by a similar quantity — one third — as well."
Analysts have been predicting the airline will cut unprofitable routes to China and Western Europe, where many of the passengers in the two disasters were from.
Azman said Khazanah has recommended to the government that the Malaysia Airlines name remain unchanged. He also said there are no plans to sell its profitable maintenance arm.
In releasing its latest quarterly financial result, a loss, on Thursday, Malaysia Airlines said the worst financial impact from the disasters will come in the second half of this year.
Khazanah has begun a search for a new chief executive for the airline, which is likely to be completed by the end of this year.
Current CEO Ahmad Jauhari Yahya will continue to head Malaysia Airlines until its new incarnation is established in July next year.

Apple production to increase by 28 pc in Mustang

MYAGDI, Aug 06: In Mustang, also known as the apple kingdom, apple production is expected to increase by 28 percent this year.
It is estimated that production will increase due to favorable weather, said Senior Agriculture Development Officer of District Agriculture Development Office Mustang, Rewati Raman Paudel.
Last year, it was produced 3,500 metric tonnes in the district and this year it is expected to be produced 4,500 mt, he said.
Mustang farmers harvest apples from the fourth week of August and they are happy that there is good market and increased production.
In Mustang, apple farming is in Marpha, Tukuche, Jomsom, Lete, Kagbeni, Muktinath and Jong in 867 hectares of land, said the Office.
As the production decreased last year, the price was above Rs. 65 per kg but this year consumers can get at Rs. 60 by highest. The Office said the farmers are asked to lower the price as production has increased.
Last year, 33,000 apple saplings were distributed for commercial production, and apple farmers affiliating with cooperatives have been increasing in the past few years.
As against apple saplings imported from out of the district, this year, this problem will be removed.
Some 70,000 plants are demanded annually and they will be produced in the district itself, said Poudel. Last year, the farming was expanded in 110 hectares of land and commercial farmers are increasing.

Jhapa farmers conduct frogs marriage wishing for rainfall

KAKARVITTA (JHAPA), Jul 30: Farmers in Jhapa, a Tarai district in eastern Nepal, conducted the marriage ceremony of frogs today wishing for rainfall in the district which has not witnessed rainfall till the end of July.
In the ceremony, farmers got two frogs married with all the antecedent rituals. The marriage ceremony of the frogs was held at the Durgapur-based Durga Temple in Kankai Municipality-1 with a hope that such unique ritual would make Indra, the god of Rain, happy and that he would bless them with rainfall.
The marriage was performed by temple priest Tankamani Kafle.
The bride frog was brought from Kankai- 7 and bridegroom from the Kanakai Municipality-1, according to local farmer Yashoda Bhattarai. The temple management committee made necessary arrangements for performing the event.


3 Chinese inmates kill guard, break out of jail

BEIJING, , Sep 02: Three prisoners including a death row inmate killed a guard, donned police uniforms and escaped in a rare jailbreak in northeastern China early Tuesday, prompting a manhunt that later recaptured two of the men, state media said.
Armed police searched for the other fugitive, following the breakout from Yanshou county jail outside the city of Harbin, according to a report on the website of the Communist Party´s People´s Daily newspaper.
Two of the men were recaptured near a reservoir about 2 kilometers (1.2 miles) from the jail, the paper said.
One of the men, Gao Yulun, 50, had been sentenced to death, the report said. The other two, Wang Damin, 35, and Li Haiwei, 29, were charged, respectively, with assault leading to death and murder, although it wasn´t clear whether they had gone on trial yet.
People´s Daily did not say which man was still on the run.
The three had killed the guard about 6 a.m. and had donned police jackets and shirts as they left the jail, the report said.
No other details were given and a guard who answered the jail´s phone said he was not permitted to answer questions, while calls to the county´s Communist Party propaganda office rang unanswered.
Chinese jails and prisons are run along strict lines and escapes are extremely rare.
China imprisons are far smaller percentage of its population than the U.S. — 118 per 100,000 people compared to America´s 737 per 100,000. However, punishments are often harsh and China is believed to execute more people for crimes each year than the rest of the world combined.

Beijing faces defiance in Hong Kong on vote reform

HONG KONG: , Sep 01: Hong Kong pro-democracy legislators have disrupted a Beijing official's speech as he sought to explain a decision to tightly limit voting reforms for the southern Chinese financial hub.
They chanted slogans and held up placards accusing China's central government of "breaking its promise" to let Hong Kong directly elect its leader.
The noisy demonstration at the start of Li Fei's address was a rare occasion on which a Beijing official faced open defiance.
Li is a deputy secretary general of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress, or legislature. He continued his speech after security officers hustled the lawmakers out of the auditorium.
On Sunday Beijing inflamed political tension by ruling out open nominations of candidates running for Hong Kong's top job in inaugural elections in 2017.

S. Korea: N. Korea fires projectile into sea

SEOUL, SOUTH KOREA, Sep 01: South Korea says North Korea has fired another short-range projectile into the sea, the latest in a slew of weapons tests the North has been conducting this year.
A Defense Ministry official says the projectile flew about 220 kilometers (135 miles) before landing in waters off the North´s east coast on Monday morning. He spoke on condition of anonymity, citing department rules.
North Korea has test-launched an unusually large number of missiles and rockets this year, but the latest firing came three days after it said it won´t send a cheering squad to the upcoming Asian Games in South Korea.
The North blamed what it called South Korea´s hostility for cancelling its decision to send cheerleaders.
The North has said it still plans to send athletes to the Asian Games.


Review Nepal Gallery


Rhododendron forest in Annapurna region, with Dhaulagiri at the background.
Photo Courtesy: trekkingnepalhimalaya.wordpress.com

Mount Everest, the highest pick of the world.
Photo Courtesy: www.mount-everest.net

Pashupatinath Temple
Photo Courtesy: nepaliadventure.wordpress.com

Lumbini is the birth of place of Lord Buddha and has been declared as a World Heritage Site by the UNESCO. Shakyamuni Buddha was born in Lumbin
Photo Courtesy: www.muktinathtour.com
Interview
Sports Updates
United draws 0-0 with Burnley in Premier League

BURNLEY, ENGLAND,, Aug 30: Angel Di Maria´s promising debut failed to inspire lackluster Manchester United to a first win of the season on Saturday as Burnley held on for a 0-0 draw in the Premier League.
The Argentina midfielder, signed for a British-record fee of 59.7 million pounds ($99 million) from Real Madrid, played in central midfield and was one of United´s best players at Turf Moor before being substituted in the 70th minute.
Di Maria set up United´s best two chances of the first half, his raking ball setting up Robin van Persie for a chance that was parried away by goalkeeper Tom Heaton while Juan Mata slipped as he attempted to convert Di Maria´s cross.
United has just two points from three games under new manager Louis van Gaal, despite spending about 130 million pounds ($215 million) this summer.

Neymar back for Barca, Iniesta out with knee pain

BARCELONA, SPAIN, Aug 30: Neymar has been cleared to play again for Barcelona after the Brazil striker missed its Spanish league opener because of a left ankle sprain.
While Neymar is in the squad for Sunday´s visit to Villarreal, Barcelona will be without Andres Iniesta, who has pain in his left knee.
Coach Luis Enrique has also included 18-year-old forward Munir El Haddadi after his goal-scoring performance helped Barcelona win its league opener last week.

Boxer Vijender to miss Asian Games due to injury

NEW DELHI, , Aug 26: Indian boxer Vijender Singh will not defend his middleweight title at next month´s Asian Games in Incheon, South Korea, because of injury.
Vijender, who sustained a ligament injury to his left hand during the Commonwealth Games in Glasgow, said doctors had advised him against participating in next week´s trials.
The 28-year-old Vijender, who was the first Indian boxer to win a medal at the Olympics with a bronze at the 2008 Beijing Games, says "there has been some bleeding."
Vijender also won medals in two other Commonwealth Games - silver in Melbourne in 2006 and bronze in New Delhi in 2010.

Technology & Information
Swiss-made solar plane makes maiden flight

BERLIN, Jun 02: A Swiss-made solar-powered aircraft has made a successful inaugural flight as its makers prepare for what they hope will be the first round-the-world solar flight.
The Solar Impulse 2 team said the aircraft spent 2 hours and 17 minutes in the air above western Switzerland early Monday. They plan several other flights over the coming months.
The Solar Impulse 2 is a bigger and better version of a single-seat prototype that first took flight five years ago. Bertrand Piccard and Andre Borschberg, the project´s founders, say it theoretically can stay airborne indefinitely. The plane soaks up energy from the sun through some 17,200 solar cells that cover its massive wings, which span 72 meters (236 feet).
Piccard and Borschberg hope to fly the aircraft around the world next year.

TU central library developing as e-library

KATHMANDU, May 16: Efforts are on to develop the TU central library, the biggest library in the country, as an e-library according to the wish of readers and changing times.
The library was established in 2016 BS along with the establishment of the Tribhuvan University at Tripureshwar and was shifted to Kirtipur in 2020 BS.
The library had come into operation with the collection of only 200 books but now there are over 400,000 books on different subjects and a large number of national and international research journals, library sources said.
The library has made preparations to developing it into an e-library. For this purpose, the library has started microfilming the old and tattered books, chief librarian Janardan Dhungana said. The library has set up a solar panel capable of generating 12 kilowatts power, as the library was facing power shortage in the past days, he added.
Meanwhile, the library administration has started distributing digital identity cards to its users. The library also has a plan of developing a research centre and has allocated rooms for that purpose, Dhungana further said.

Samsung Selects New Mobile Design Chief

.., May 08: Samsung has replaced its chief of mobile design, following last week's resignation of Chang Dong-hoon.
Lee Min-hyouk, vice president for mobile design, will take the department reigns, Reuters reported.
The 42-year-old in 2010 became Samsung's youngest senior executive, due to his work in designing the Galaxy handset series, which has helped the South Korean company dominate the global smartphone space. Now, as Reuters pointed out, Samsung sells twice as many smartphones as Apple.
But the recent launch of its next-generation Galaxy flagship phone did not receive the same warm welcome as its predecessors. The GS5's all-plastic design—a sticking point for PCMag's reviewers—was slammed for looking cheap, while the handset's lack of hardware innovations did little to excite customers.
Samsung did not immediately respond to PCMag's request for comment.